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Results: 12

Berks, M., Breitung, C., Engelberth, S., & Richards, J. (2022). Between concepts and reality: How to deal with armed groups in transition phases of violent conflict? (BICC Knowledge Notes series No. 01/2022/2022). Bonn: BICC.

In November 2021, BICC hosted an international online conference titled “Between concepts and reality: How to deal with armed groups in transition phases of violent conflict?” BICC Knowledge Note 1\2022 wraps up the key insights gained and discussed at the conference. In the publication, the... more

Richards, J. (2018). High risk or low risk: Screening for violent extremists in DDR programmes. International Peacekeeping, 25(3), 373-393.

Programmes of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) are increasingly implemented in contexts of violent extremist conflict. In such settings, DDR practitioners may need to distinguish between ex-combatants who can be safely reintegrated into civilian life, and ex-combatants who are... more

Richards, J. (2018). Troop retention in civil wars: Desertion, denunciation, and military organization in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Global Security Studies, 3(1), 38-55.

This article investigates the link between the organizational structure of nonstate armed groups and the ability of low-level combatants to desert without recapture. Throughout, I show that nonstate armed groups can adopt organizational structures that mimic those found in national armies and that... more

Richards, J. (2017). Demobilising and disengaging violent extremists: Towards a new UN framework. Stability: International Journal of Security and Development, 6(1), 14: 1-5.

First and second generation programmes of Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR), are no longer ‘fit for purpose’ in contexts of violent extremism. Recognising this, voices from within the United Nations (UN) system have recently called for the development of a practice framework... more

Richards, J. (2016). Implementing DDR in settings of ongoing conflict: The organization and fragmentation of armed groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Stability: International Journal of Security and Development, 5(1), 1-10.

Although it is common for armed groups to splinter (or “fragment”) during contexts of multi-party civil war, current guidance on Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) does not address the challenges that arise when recalcitrant fighters, unwilling to report to DDR, break ranks and... more

Richards, J. (2016, February). Matching needs and resources: Small arms control initiatives in the Greater Sahel, 2015–2016 (BICC Working Paper series No. 2/2016). Bonn: BICC.

The Greater Sahel region has never experienced such a high-level of arms availability. Given the large array of efforts now in place across the region to stem the proliferation of small arms and light weapons (SALW), it is pertinent to take stock, assess who is doing what, and reflect on... more

Richards, J. (2014). Forced, coerced, and voluntary recruitment into rebel and militia groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 52(2), 301-326.

Why do non-state armed groups forcibly recruit civilians? To address this question I develop a conceptual framework distinguishing voluntary, coerced and forced recruitment. I then compare the recruitment tactics employed by ‘Mai-Mai’ militias and the RCD-Goma rebel group in the Democratic Republic... more