Results: 119

Mielke, K. (2023). Finding One's Place in Chaos. Returnees' Reintegration Experiences in Northern Iraq (BICC Working Paper series No. 2/2023). Bonn: BICC.

Migration in northern Iraq is a product of global, postcolonial processes driven by highly unequal international relations of global capitalism and geopolitics. With a focus on ‘reintegration’ experiences of returnees to northern Iraq who have left abroad over the last four decades and returned... more

Schmitz-Pranghe, C. (2023). The The Role of Mobility, Networks and Reintegration Assistance after Return. Insights from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia (BICC Working Paper series No. 1/2023). Bonn: BICC.

This Working Paper investigates the (re-)integration trajectories of returnees to the two Western Balkan countries Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. By applying a multidimensional and processual understanding of (re-)integration, it scrutinises how returnees' positionality as well as local context... more

Rudolf, M. (2022). Talking at Cross-Purposes? On Ambigous Relationships between International Policies on Return and Reintegration and their local Conceptualisations in Ghana, the Gambia and Senegal (BICC Working Paper series No. 1/2022). Bonn: BICC.

This Working Paper explores and compares return to and reintegration in Ghana, the Gambia and Senegal while setting different positionalities of migrants against migration and return regimes and broader socio-economic inequalities. The Paper first highlights the trajectories and motivations of... more

Neitzert, A., Döring, M., Röing, T., & von Boemcken, M. (2021). Haftanstalten als Orte der Radikalisierungsprävention? Herausforderungen und Bedarfe der Präventionsarbeit in Justizvollzugsanstalten Nordrhein-Westfalens (BICC Working Paper series No. 5/2021). Bonn: BICC.

This BICC Working Paper examines the challenges and needs associated with preventing radicalisation in prisons in North Rhine-Westphalia. The results are based on interviews conducted by the project team at BICC in 2021 with actors working in prevention in and outside of the justice system in North... more

Mkutu, K. (2021). Anticipation, participation and contestation along the LAPSSET Infrastructure Corridor in Kenya (BICC Working Paper series No. 4/2021). Bonn: BICC.

Pastoral counties in northern Kenya are expected to undergo massive social–ecological change ­in the coming years as a result of the government’s ‘Vision 2030’ with its large-scale investments ­and infrastructure projects. The Lamu Port–South Sudan–Ethiopia Transport (LAPSSET) corridor ­project is... more

Bayer, M., Alberth, R., Hauk, S., & Mutschler, M. (2021, August). Global Militarisation Index: Presentation, Codebook and reflexion (BICC Working Paper series No. 3/2021). Bonn: BICC.

Measuring militarisation is complex. Since 2003 and retrospectively up to 1990, BICC has been measuring militarisation worldwide with the Global Militarisation Index (GMI). The GMI’s approach is resource-based and measures the level of militarisation of a society by its allocation of... more

Neitzert, A. (2021, August). Ausstiegsarbeit gegen Extremismus in NRW: Eine vergleichende Analyse (BICC Working Paper series No. 2/2021). Bonn: BICC.

Exit programmes differ in their approaches depending on who is running them and who their target groups are. This BICC Working Paper develops an analytical framework to compare the different programmes, based on both a comprehensive literature review and interviews with practitioners. It takes into... more

Röing, T. (2021, August). Ist ein bisschen Deradikalisierung besser als keine? Zur Ausstiegsarbeit mit Rückkehrerinnen und Rückkehrern aus dschihadistischen Gruppen in Deutschland (BICC Working Paper series No. 1/2021). Bonn: BICC.

Between 2013 and 2019, more than 1,000 mostly young people left Germany to join jihadist groups in Syria and Iraq. BICC Working Paper 1\2021 addresses the question of how to counter the security threat posed by these returnees. Among other things, Germany is pursuing the path of resocialisation:... more

Mkutu, K. (2020, June). Security dynamics in conservancies in Kenya: The case of Isiolo County (BICC Working Paper series No. 3/2020). Bonn: BICC.

The community-based conservation model is an increasing phenomenon in Kenya, especially in northern pastoralist counties. In BICC Working Paper 3\2020 the author Kennedy Mkutu considers dimensions of inclusion and exclusion and subsequent conflicts around community based conservancies in Isiolo... more

Döring, M., Röing, T., & von Boemcken, M. (2020, June). "Prävention ist keine 'Eintagsfliege'". Herausforderungen und Bedarfe der Prävention islamistischer Radikalisierung aus lokaler Perspektive in Nordrhein-Westfalen (BICC Working Paper series No. 2/2020). Bonn: BICC.

Prevention against Islamist radicalisation is still an important policy field in North Rhine-Westphalia. But what is the current state of affairs from the perspective of those who work in prevention locally? Where do local advisors on prevention, teachers, social workers, representatives of local... more

Rudolf, M. (2020, March). Immobilisation, restricted spatial mobility and displacement in violent conflict (BICC Working Paper series No. 1/2020). Bonn: BICC.

Putting the humanitarian–development nexus into practice, aid organisations and donors pay most attention to camp populations in protracted refugee situations (PRS). In BICC Working Paper 1\2020 the author Markus Rudolf argues that synergies arise when development aid redefines and expands the area... more

Meininghaus, E., & Mielke, K. (2019, December). Beyond Doha and Geneva: Peacemaking engagement of Afghans and Syrians in North Rhine-Westphalia and Germany (BICC Working Paper series No. 11/2019). Bonn: BICC.

For several decades now, Germany has become home to significant numbers of Afghans, and more recently Syrians, who have fled war. In this Working Paper, the authors Esther Meininghaus and Katja Mielke analyse the political engagement for peace by Afghans and Syrians in Germany since the beginning... more

Vollmer, R. (2019, November). Agency and livelihood-making in protracted displacement: Key insights and recommendations for development cooperation — Synthesis report of the research project "Protected rather than protracted" (BICC Working Paper series No. 10/2019). Bonn: BICC.

As synthesis report of the research project "Protected rather than protracted" BICC Working Paper 10\2019 provides key insights and recommendations for development cooperation. The project’s approach of analysing protracted displacement through the perspectives and experiences of the... more

Rudolf, M. (2019, October). Conceptualising crisis, refugees and IDPs: Insights from northern Iraq on vulnerabilities and needs caused by displacement (BICC Working Paper series No. 9/2019). Bonn: BICC.

This Working Paper assesses how humanitarian and development aid agencies address   individuals whose human rights and human dignity have been affected by displacement. It proposes a fresh look at how to measure needs that arise in such situations. To this end, the  Paper evaluates... more

Grawert, E. (2019, September). Between reconciliation, resignation and revenge: (Re-)integration of refugees, internally displaced people and ex-combatants in Sierra Leone in a long-term perspective (BICC Working Paper series No. 8/2019). Bonn: BICC.

Sierra Leone is known for the successful reintegration of a high number of returning refugees  and internally displaced people (IDPs), many of whom had stayed in protracted displacement   situations during the eleven years of a most cruel internal war. The war was intertwined with... more

Mkutu, K. (2019, August). Pastoralists, politics and development projects. Unterstanding the layers of armed conflict in Isiolo county, Kenya (BICC Working Paper series No. 7/2019). Bonn: BICC.

Pastoral counties of northern Kenya are expected to undergo massive change in the  coming years due to the government’s ambitious infrastructural development agenda.  However, the area frequently experiences violence as a result of conflict between pastoralist communities, and also due to... more

Röing, T. (2019, June). Continuation of political conflicts or a new beginning? Turkish refugees in North Rhine-Westphalia (BICC Working Paper series No. 6/2019). Bonn: BICC.

Since the failed coup attempt by parts of the Turkish military against President Erdogan in summer 2016, the Turkish government has suspended more than 100,000 civil servants on the pretext of having planned a coup. For fear of persecution and arbitrary imprisonment, about 21,000 Turkish citizens... more

Christ, S. (2019, April). "Thank God, I don't feel like a refugee anymore" - Everyday life and integration processes of refugees (BICC Working Paper series No. 5/2019). Bonn: BICC.

BICC Working Paper 5\2019 by Simone Christ analyses integration processes of refugees in Germany, particularly taking the situation in North Rhine-Westphalia into account. The Working Paper is based on almost two years of field research that includes expert interviews, interviews with displaced... more

Grawert, E. (2019, March). Between aid dependence, neighbourhood solidarity and the EU-Jordan Compact. Livelihood analysis of Syrian refugees in Greater Amman (BICC Working Paper series No. 4/2019). Bonn: BICC.

Jordan, with a population of about ten million, hosts 1.3 million Syrians of whom 670,000 are UNHCR-registered refugees, as well as nearly 85,000 registered refugees from other countries and is thus one of the countries with the highest proportion of refugees in the world. Most of them (83 per... more

Christ, S., Meininghaus, E., & Röing, T. (2019, March). “All Day Waiting” – Causes of conflict in refugee shelters in Germany (BICC Working Paper series No. 3/2019). Bonn: BICC.

This Working Paper argues that conflicts in refugee shelters in Germany can  largely be attributed to structural causes. These include the asylum regime,  the interplay between the physical layout and social relationships within refugee shelters, and the specific properties of the refugee... more

Bohnet, H., & Schmitz-Pranghe, C. (2019, February). Uganda: A role model for refugee integration? (BICC Working Paper series No. 2/2019). Bonn: BICC.

Uganda hosts the largest refugee population in Africa and is, after Turkey and Pakistan, the third-largest refugee recipient country worldwide. Political and humanitarian actors have widely praised Ugandan refugee policies because of their progressive nature: In Uganda, in contrast to many other... more

von Boemcken, M. (2019, February). Theologie, Therapie oder Teilhabe? Deutscher Salafismus, Radikalisierung und die Suche nach Präventionsstrategien (BICC Working Paper series No. 01/2019). Bonn: BICC.

In the BICC Working Paper "Theology, Therapy or Participation? German Salafism, Radicalisation and the Search for Prevention Strategies" author Marc von Boemcken analyses research approaches to the prevention of radicalisation. According to the security authorities, the number of violent... more

Grawert, E., & Mielke, K. (2018, November). Coping with protracted displacement - How Afghans secure their livelihood in Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan (BICC Working Paper series No. 2/2018). Bonn: BICC.

This Working Paper addresses the situation of Afghans before, during and after  their displacements in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran. Its aim is: (1) to under- stand how internally displaced lower-class Afghans, refugees who have   returned and Afghan refugees staying in... more

Rudolf, M., & Schmitz-Pranghe, C. (2018, July). Beyond aid: The continuous struggle to cope with displacement in Myanmar and Thailand (BICC Working Paper series No. 1/2018). Bonn: BICC.

Multi-party elections and the signing of a Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement (NCA) in 2015 raised hopes in the international community of a possible settlement of Myanmar’s protracted conflict and one of the world’s worst protracted displacement situations (PDS) in the near future. Yet conflicts in... more

von Boemcken, M. (2017, July). Defence conversion: Dead duck or still a relevant object of study? (BICC Working Paper series No. 7/2017). Bonn: BICC.

In Working Paper 7\2017, the author Marc von Boemcken analyzes the evolution of Conversion Studies from the Cold War to the post-Cold War period and discusses some of the reasons for the demise of the discipline in the new millennium. Based on a consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of... more

Mielke, K., & Miszak, N. (2017, July). Making sense of Daesh in Afghanistan: A social movement perspective (BICC Working Paper series No. 6/2017). Bonn: BICC.

BICC Working Paper 6\2017 “Making sense of Daesh in Afghanistan: A social movement perspective” builds on a ten-month fieldwork-based research project conducted in four regions—east, west, northeast and north Afghanistan—during 2016. The authors Katja Mielke and Nick Miszak analyze so-called... more

Grawert, E., & Shirzad, F. (2017, July). Conflict-sensitive employment in Afghan construction and transport companies (BICC Working Paper series No. 5/2017). Bonn: BICC.

With the aim of identifying the challenges of and motives for conflict-sensitive employment, the authors Elke Grawert (BICC) and Fazalrabi Shirzad (The Liaison Office, TLO) present a qualitative study on construction and transport companies in Afghanistan, based on interviews with company owners... more

Grawert, E., Nusrat, R., & Shah, Z. (2017, May). Afghanistan’s cross-border trade with Pakistan and Iran and the responsibility for conflict-sensitive employment (BICC Working Paper series No. 4/2017). Bonn: BICC.

This Working Paper focuses on transporters, i. e. hauliers, as important actors in the border areas between Afghanistan and its neighbours Pakistan and Iran. The transport sector is sensitive to market fluctuations and a volatile business environment, reacting strongly with increasing or declining... more

Christ, S., Meininghaus, E., & Röing, T. (2017, May). "All Day Waiting"—Konflikte in Unterkünften für Geflüchtete in NRW (BICC Working Paper series No. 3/2017). Bonn: BICC.

Germany's shelter system for refugees differs between its 16 federal states; this study focuses on the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), which hosts the highest number of refugees who have entered  Germany thus far. Using a qualitative approach, the study conducted by BICC researchers... more

Müller-Koné, M., Schmitz-Pranghe, C., & Schetter, C. (2017, May). Flucht und Binnenvertreibung in Asien: Ansatzpunkte für und Grenzen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit (BICC Working Paper series No. 2/2017). Bonn: BICC.

Asia and the Pacific region are particularly affected by displacement: 3.8 million  people are under the mandate of the UNHCR and millions of these are internally  displaced people (IDPs). The causes of displacement in Asia are multiple and go  well beyond what is covered by the... more

Grawert, E., Hansohm, D., & Nusrat, R. (2017, January). Is conflict sensitivity applicable to employment? (BICC Working Paper series No. 1/2017). Bonn: BICC.

“Conflict-sensitivity” is a catchword that addresses business practices in environments of armed conflict. The United Nations Global Compact and international finance institutions are devoting efforts into convincing companies to comply with principles aiming to provide the private sector with a... more

Bohnet, H. (2016, October). Back to turmoil: Refugee and IDP return to and within South Sudan (BICC Working Paper series No. 7/2016). Bonn: BICC.

In BICC Working Paper 7\2016 Heidrun Bohnet investigates the challenges South Sudanese returnees and displaced persons face from their very own perspective. Building on field research in the autumn and winter of 2015, the author analyses the patterns of return and coping strategies of returnees, as... more

Breitung, C., Paes, W.-C., & van de Vondervoort, L. (2016, September). In need of a critical re-think: Security sector reform in South Sudan (BICC Working Paper series No. 6/2016). Bonn: BICC.

Past attempts at security sector reform (SSR) and disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) in South Sudan have made no significant contribution to ‘right-sizing’ the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) and were unable to sustainably change South Sudan’s security apparatus. Taking into... more

von Boemcken, M., Schetter, C., Boboyorov, H., Bagdasarova, N., & Sulaimanov, J. (2016, June). Local security-making in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan (BICC Working Paper series No. 5/2016). Bonn: BICC.

In cooperation with researchers in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, BICC (Bonn International Center for Conversion) is conducting a three-year research project on everyday security practices in Central Asia, which is funded by the Volkswagen Foundation. The project was launched in July 2015. While... more

Breitung, C. (2016, March). Evaluation of the MSAG/IPSTC train-the-trainer project in physical security and stockpile management (BICC Working Paper series No. 4/2016). Bonn: BICC.

There are still large deficiencies in small arms and light weapons (SALW) and conventional ammunition (CA) storage and management in the Great Lakes Region, the Horn of Africa and bordering states. Particularly state capacities to plan and implement physical security and stockpile management (PSSM)... more

Mutschler, M. (2016, February). On the road to liquid warfare? Revisiting Zygmunt Bauman's thoughts on liquid modernity in the context of the "new Western way of war" (BICC Working Paper series No. 3/2016). Bonn: BICC.

This Working Paper examines military interventions by precision strikes from a distance as a means to avoiding ground combat with own troops. A prominent strand of the literature argues that this is a particularly Western phenomenon; a consequence of the casualty aversion of democratic states and... more

Richards, J. (2016, February). Matching needs and resources: Small arms control initiatives in the Greater Sahel, 2015–2016 (BICC Working Paper series No. 2/2016). Bonn: BICC.

The Greater Sahel region has never experienced such a high-level of arms availability. Given the large array of efforts now in place across the region to stem the proliferation of small arms and light weapons (SALW), it is pertinent to take stock, assess who is doing what, and reflect on... more

Alusala, N. (2016, February). Lessons from small arms and weapons control initiatives in Africa (BICC Working Paper series No. 1/2016). Bonn: BICC.

The proliferation and trafficking of small arms and light weapons (SALW) in Africa is partly attributable to weak national controls, the porosity of state borders, and ongoing armed conflict on the continent. To address these problems a number of initiatives have been undertaken by states, regional... more

Bohnet, H., Mielke, K., Rudolf, M., Schetter, C., & Vollmer, R. (2015, December). Protected rather than protracted: Strengthening displaced persons in peace processes (BICC Working Paper series No. 3/2015). Bonn: BICC.

This Paper reviews the current state of the art on the return of displaced persons as a durable solution for long-term displacement situations. It outlines the impact, challenges and actors involved in the return process. The Paper shows that present understandings of return, protracted situations... more

Bernarding, N., Guesnet, L., & Müller-Koné, M. (2015, May). No rebel without a cause. Shifting the debate about conflict minerals in eastern DRC (BICC Working Paper series No. 2/2015). Bonn: BICC.

Precluding conflict financing through the minerals sector has come to be seen as the panacea to ending conflicts in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The US Dodd-Frank-Act (2010) and European draft legislation attempt to reduce the financing of armed groups in conflict zones by... more

van de Vondervoort, L. (2014, December). “Guns are for the government” (BICC Working Paper series No. 1/2014). Bonn: BICC.

From 2011 until 2014, BICC worked with the government of South Sudan to improve the management of state-owned arms and ammunition. In BICC Working Paper 1\ 2014 Luuk van de Vondervoort evaluates this BICC advisory project on state-owned arms control. The difficulties related to improving arms... more

Grebe, J., & Schwarz, C. (2013, February). Security-policy implications of the maritime military build-up in the Asia-Pacific Region: Focus on Australia, Japan, South Korea and Vietnam (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

The (renewed) rise of China has been one of the central topics in international politics since the 1990s. This development brings along a number of far-reaching regional and global consequences. A comprehensive maritime rearmament—not only by China itself but also its immediate neighbors and other... more

Grebe, J. (2011, February). The Global Militarization Index (GMI): Use of the GMI for evaluating the development orientation of states and regional militarization (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

The Global Militarization Index (GMI) of BICC (Bonn International Center for Conversion) presents the militarization of a country and thus shows developments and processes in resource allocation of a given country. It can be used as a tool for assessing the relationship between military to... more

Koltermann, F. (2010, August). Der Gaza-Krieg im Bild (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

This Occasional Paper analyzes the photographic reporting of the German daily newspapers Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ) and Süddeutsche Zeitung (SZ) about the Gaza war (2008/2009).This paper is based on the assumption that photographic reporting as photojournalistic war photography represents... more

Müller-Koné, M. (2010, June). Revenue transparency to mitigate the resource curse in the Niger Delta? Potential and reality of NEITI (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

The paper begins with a discussion of the possible negative consequences of oil exploitation in developing countries, often referred to as resource curse, introducing the analytical framework of the ‘petro-state’ (Section 1). In order to assess the relevance of revenue transparency for addressing... more

Runge, P. (2009, October). The provincial reconstruction teams in Afghanistan: Role model for civil-military relations? (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

The main purpose of this Occasional Paper is to provide a humanitarian perspective to the ongoing debate about PRTs as a role model for civil-military relations. It will analyze the security dilemma in Afghanistan and the impact of the PRTs on the delivery of humanitarian aid. It will further... more

Radecke, H. (2009, April). Sierra Leone: Mit Sicherheit eine gute Wahl? Eine Zwischenbilanz der demokratischen Friedenskonsolidierung (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

This Occasional Paper focuses on the analysis of individual measures fostering democratic peace consolidation in Sierra Leone. Following a theoretical introduction, the political history of Sierra Leone is described briefly. The main part consists of the presentation and evaluation of the... more

Dehérez, D. (2009, April). The scarcity of land in Somalia. Natural resources and their role in the Somali conflict (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

A historical perspective, as proposed by this Occasional Paper, might illuminate one of the underlying roots of conflict and state failure and might also help address central problems to conflict resolution in Somalia. It is the thesis of this Paper that in the fertile riverine areas of southern... more

Blix, H., Yazdi, E., Walsh, J., Kubbig, B., & Sommer, J. (2009, March). New chances for a compromise in the nuclear dispute with Iran? (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

On 4 December 2008, the Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC) and Deutsche Welle jointly organized a half-day conference on the nuclear dispute with Iran in Bonn, entitled “After the Elections in the United States: New Chances for a Compromise in the Nuclear Dispute with Iran?” With the... more

Ashkenazi, M. (2008, July). Putting the cart before the horse: AWACs and fundamental policy objectives in Afghanistan (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

In recent months, NATO has approached member states with a request to redeploy several AWACs (Airborne Warning and Control) planes, currently based in Geilenkirchen, Germany, in support of air operations in Afghanistan. BICC, building on previous experience in Afghanistan, addresses two issues in... more

Küchle, H. (2008, April). Seehäfen als neuralgische Zonen der kritischen Infrastruktur: Sicherheitstechnologische Lösungen und Arbeitsplätze am Beispiel des Hamburger Hafens (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

The port of Hamburg is the largest port in Germany, the third-largest port in Europe and, as the second largest container terminal in Europe, is one of the nine largest container terminals in the world (Deutsche Verkehrs-Zeitung, 2001). This study offers a comprehensive insight into the job... more

Heinze, M.-C. (2008, February). Die Peacebuilding Commission der Vereinten Nationen: Ein Generalschlüssel für den Frieden? (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

Most experts agree that sustainable peace consolidation demands more than a mere end of violence. Besides the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) of ex-combatants and the re-establishment of national security and the state monopoly of violence it also needs the establishment and... more

Küchle, H. (2007, December). Innovationen zum Schutz deutscher Flughäfen vor Anschlägen: Sicherheitstechnologien und Arbeitsplätze am Beispiel des Düsseldorfer Flughafens (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

The modern, complex industrialized states of the West are faced with multi-faceted challenges with regard to their overall national security, especially since 9/11 2001 and the following terrorist attacks in Europe: international terrorism, organized crime, drugs- and human trafficking, political... more

Franke, V., Hampel-Milagrosa, A., & Schure, J. (2007, November). In control of natural wealth? Governing the resource-conflict dynamic (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

For many developing countries, the extraction of natural resources has been a blessing, as their export can provide urgently needed development capital. For others, however, resource wealth has been a curse, as their population still faces extreme poverty and they have been haunted by corruption,... more

Böge, V., & Krieger, N. (2007, October). Tabellarische Übersicht ausgewählter Fälle aus den Bereichen extraktive Industrien, Wald und Wasserwirtschaft (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

This synopsis on ‘resources and conflict’ presents 16 contemporary cases in which large projects from the areas of the extractive industries (oil, gas, and mining), logging and water management have led to violent or violence-prone conflicts. The synopsis comprises the core variables that determine... more

Krieger, N. (2007, July). Gewinnung natürlicher Ressourcen in Konfliktsituationen: Bestandsaufnahme zu den Positionen und Strategien relevanter EZ-Akteure (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

Violent conflict around the extraction of natural resources characterizes everyday life in many resource-rich development countries. In particular in countries, where state structures are weak and where deficits in resource governance exist, a specific constellation of controversial extraction... more

Böge, V. (2007, June). Das BP Tangguh Erdgasprojekt in West-Papua/ Indonesien (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

The BP Tangguh gas project in the Indonesian province of (West) Papua is the currently largest development project in Indonesia. Situated in Bintuni Bay in the west of New Guinea, BP intends to extract natural gas from offshore gas fields, liquefy it on land and export it to customers such as China... more

Burghardt, D., Delisle, R., & Heinrich, M. (2007, May). Konzeptpapier Integrierte Missionen Für ein effizientes Friedensengagement Das Konzept der Integrierten Missionen (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

This study presents the concept of UN integrated peace missions and, by looking at three examples, analyzes its practical implementation. The missions under review (mission in Haiti—MINUSTAH; in Sudan—UNMIS, and in Liberia—UNMIL) show that the concept is applied differently with varying degrees of... more

Schure, J., & Kantel, V. (2007, May). Governing the gift of nature resource conflict monitor: The links between governance, conflict and natural resources (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

The cocoa trade from Côte d’Ivoire, the country’s main commodity has played a major role in the four-and-a-half-years of armed conflict. Over US $118 million revenues from the cocoa trade flowed into the conflict by funding both the government and the rebel group ‘Forces Nouvelles (FN)’ in the... more

Warnecke, A., Brethfeld, J., & Franke, V. (2007, March). Agents of peace or agents of war? The role of the African diaspora in conflict processes (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

The issue 'diaspora' is seeing a revival in political discussion today. One of the factors determining this revival is the debate on improving the chances of integration for migrants; another one is the discussion on the challenges arising from the increasing influx of people from poor countries... more

Tannous, I. (2007, February). Schnittstellen von Entwicklung und Sicherheit der EU Strategien und Mechanismen für mehr Politikkohärenz (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

The short formula “Development needs security, security needs development” describes experiences made in the past few years. Just a few years ago, it would have been just as unthinkable to resort to the expertise and resources of development policy for originally military measures as to enroll... more

Ehrhart, H.-G. (2007, February). Sicherheit + Entwicklung = Frieden? Zur Rolle der Entwicklungspolitik in der zivilen ESVP (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

Most experts agree today, that peace and stability are an absolute necessity for development and that vice versa, development is an absolute necessity for the sustainability of peace and stability. This nexus between development and extended security is mirrored both in the overall concept... more

von Boemcken, M., & Krieger, N. (2006, December). Konzeptpapier - "Early warning - early action" Entwicklungspolitische Instrumente zur frühzeitigen Eindämmung von Gewaltkonflikten (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

This concept paper puts forward a theoretical model for identifying and classifying types of causes of militant behavior. This model is intended to help improve the structure of pro-active prevention measures. BICC is thus providing a methodical contribution to identifying how a policy of crisis... more

Warnecke, A. (2006, December). Länderstudien - "Early warning - early action" Entwicklungspolitische Instrumente zur frühzeitigen Eindämmung von Gewaltkonflikten (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

This analysis attempts to sum up and compare existing mechanisms in OECD member states for early warning and the prevention of crises. Based on this analysis, the comparative advantages of single measures are to be presented. At the same time, recommendations for future engagement will be... more

Brzoska, M. (2006, November). Analysis of and recommendations for covering security relevant expenditures within and outside of official development assistance (ODA) (Paper series No. 53). Bonn: BICC.

This short study aims to stake out the options for better capturing the implications of the growing conception that development, conflict, security and peace are interdependent for the OECD DAC’s reporting system, within and outside of ODA (Official Development Assistance). It discusses various... more

Sadjadpur, K., Neuneck, G., Kubbig, B., Meier, O., & Guldimann, T. (2006, October). Iran: Wege aus der nuklearen Sackgasse - Optionen, Barrieren und Chancen für eine Verhandlungslösung (Paper series No. 52). Bonn: BICC.

The Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC) and the Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy at the University of Hamburg (IFSH) organized a panel discussion on 14 June 2006 on which international experts voiced their opinions on the conflict about the Iranian nuclear program. The... more

Fitzpatrick, C. (2006, September). The economics of small arms demand: Polarization and rent-seeking in Haiti and Latin America (Paper series No. 51). Bonn: BICC.

This paper provides an economic account of demand for small arms as a response to politicoeconomic motivations arising from polarization and rent-seeking. Polarization has already been employed in the existing literature as a measure of the potential for conflict between groups of opposing... more

Aust, B., & Jaspers, W. (2006, May). From resource war to ‘Violent Peace’: Transition in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (Paper series No. 50). Bonn: BICC.

The first section of the paper provides an assessment of the current state of the ‘peace’ process: Political and security-related developments of the past years are analyzed with a special focus on continuities and changes of politico-economic structures and networks of its former war economy. This... more

Wieschollek, S. (2006, April). Konversion: Ein totgeborenes Kind in Wünsdorf- Waldstadt? Probleme der Umnutzung des ehemaligen Hauptquartiers der Westgruppe der Truppen zur zivilen Kleinstadt (Paper series No. 49). Bonn: BICC.

The conversion of the town of Wünsdorf (approx. 40 km away from Berlin) is a great challenge and important task for all involved. According to the former Minister President of the Land Brandenburg, Wünsdorf was to become the best example of how a former military site can be transformed into a newly... more

Patel, B. (2006, March). Costs and benefits of the chemical weapons disarmament (Paper series No. 48). Bonn: BICC.

Headnotes: Concept of peace dividend and disarmament: Myth v. Reality – Recognition of the need for thorough analysis through examining the implementation of a arms control or disarmament instrument, felt in the governmental as well as research institutions – This paper, a response to such a need –... more

Ladaa, M. (2006, February). Transboundary issues on the Caspian Sea: Opportunities for cooperation (Paper series No. 47). Bonn: BICC.

The aim of this work is to identify if the problems posed by the environmental degradation of the Caspian Sea could be such an issue. The results of cooperation on environmental issues would be twofold. First it would ensue direct action against the large-scale ecological degradation, protection... more

Wirkus, L. (2006, January). Water, development and cooperation — Comparative perspective: Euphrates-Tigris and Southern Africa (Paper series No. 46). Bonn: BICC.

From 1–2 March 2004, the Center for Development Research (ZEF) and the Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC) hosted an International Expert Workshop on “Water, Development and Cooperation – Comparative Perspective: Euphrates-Tigris and Southern Africa” in Bonn, Germany. Experts from the... more

Kreutz, J. (2005, December). Hard measures by a soft power? Sanctions policy of the European Union (Paper series No. 45). Bonn: BICC.

This paper aims at giving an overview of EU sanctions during the time period leading up to the first programmatic document on sanctions policy in June 2004. There are several reasons for why such an approach is valuable both for the research on European integration and for the international... more

Sommer, J. (2005, August). Security in Cyprus: Threat perceptions, possible compromises and the role of the EU (Paper series No. 44). Bonn: BICC.

In this paper, the reader will first find a short description of the history of the Cyprus conflict (Chapter II) and of the Annan Then, as security worries were one of the main reasons for Greek Cypriots to reject the Annan Plan, the security perceptions of Greek and Turkish Cypriots are analysed... more

Koth, M. (2005, June). To end a war: Demobilisation and reintegration of paramilitaries in Colombia (Paper series No. 43). Bonn: BICC.

Paper 43 is a result of a cooperation between the Colombian foundation “Ideas para la Paz”, the Universidad de los Andes, and the Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC), which started in 2002 at a conference in Bogota entitled “Voces y opciones del desarme: Enseñanzas adquiridas de la... more

Chrobok, V. (2005, April). Demobilising and reintegrating Afghanistan’s young soldiers: A review and assessment of program planning and implementation (Paper series No. 42). Bonn: BICC.

This report has been written to reflect some of the debates between different actors and partners involved in the process of demobilization and reintegration of former combatants in Afghanistan, and to examine the planning, coordination and early implementation of UNICEF’s program to demobilize and... more

Polyakov, L. (2005, January). Aging stocks of ammunitionand SALW in Ukraine: Risks and challenges (Paper series No. 41). Bonn: BICC.

One outcome of this study is that such an accumulation of weapons also poses dangers in times of peace. They threaten the environment and represent a high risk to security, particularly in view of the activity of international terrorist groups. The disposals of such weapons necessitates a... more

Kogan, E. (2004, December). European Union (EU) enlargement and its consequences for Europe’s defence industries and markets (Paper series No. 40). Bonn: BICC.

The eastward enlargement of the EU is accompanied by the accession of four new member states from Central and Eastern Europe, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia, as well as the inclusion of Bulgaria and Romania in 2007 and the integration of their defence industry infrastructures into... more

Grosse-Kettler, S. (2004, November). External actors in stateless Somalia: A war economy and its promoters (Paper series No. 39). Bonn: BICC.

The overall aim of this paper is to provide an understanding of the role external actors play in Somalia’s war economy. To achieve this, the study will take a close look at the impact of international economic agents; that is, individuals, groups of people, corporations and institutions based... more

Brzoska, M., von Boemcken, M., Paes, W.-C., & Jaspers, W. (2004, October). Incorporation of defense expenditures into public expenditure work (Paper series No. 38). Bonn: BICC.

The following short case studies will present and discuss readily available information on deficits in the planning, programming implementation and control of military expenditures in the East- African countries of Ethiopia, Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.The case studies are structured as... more

Lewis, S. (2004, August). Rejuvenating or restraining civil war: The role of external actors in the war economies of Sudan (Paper series No. 37). Bonn: BICC.

In the political arena, the revenue from oil had a direct impact on the delicate balance of military power between the Government of Sudan and its principal enemy, the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). This report analyzes how the funds from the oil boom have allowed the government side to buy... more

Mohanty, D. (2004, June). Changing times? India’s defence industry in the 21st century (Paper series No. 36). Bonn: BICC.

The objectives of this paper are primarily four-fold. First, the paper will examine critical aspects of defence-industrial policies adopted by India in the past and link those to performance. It will examine the factors that have influenced India’s defence production and their co-relationship with... more

Mogire, E. (2004, June). A preliminary exploration of the linkages between refugees and small arms (Paper series No. 35). Bonn: BICC.

The purpose of this study is to explore the complex relationship between refugees and arms diffusion. It examines the nature and extent of refugee involvement in small arms diffusion by analysing refugees’ demand for small arms and how their crossborder movements lead to the circulation of arms.... more

Bratanova, E. (2004, March). Legal limits of the national defence privilege in the European Union (Paper series No. 34). Bonn: BICC.

This paper deals with legal aspects of European Security and Defence Policy, and particularly the interpretation of Art. 296 of the Amsterdam Treaty1 (formerly 223 of the Rome Treaty) allowing “for the protection of the essential interests of its security which are connected with the production of... more

Mawdsley, J., & Quille, G. (2003, August). Equipping the rapid reaction force - Options for and constraints on a European defence equipment strategy (Paper series No. 33). Bonn: BICC.

In 2002 the authors were asked to, and duly submitted, a report to the European Parliament’s Committee on Foreign Affairs, Human Rights, Common Security and Defense Policy entitled ‘Equipment for EU Crisis Management’ (Pullinger, Quille, Mawdsley et al, 2003). That report overviewed the pertinent... more

Küchle, H. (2003, July). Globalisierung in der Rüstungsindustrie - Formen und Auswirkungen auf den deutschen Standort und die Arbeitsplätze (Paper series No. 32). Bonn: BICC.

Often, in the debate about globalization, a cross-border integration of national markets is highlighted and, from this, a new quality of the world market is being deduced. This study investigates whether this also holds true for the markets in defense equipment. Even though cross-border linkages of... more

Mawdsley, J. (2003, May). The European Union and Defense Industrial Policy (Paper series No. 31). Bonn: BICC.

Defense industrial policy is increasingly playing a role in this debate as the need to tackle armaments policy in a more European framework became clear. Is a European defense industrial policy emerging? Who or what are the factors driving it? Are the developments moving in the right direction?... more

Myrttinen, H. (2003, May). Base Conversion in Central and Eastern Europe 1989-2003 (Paper series No. 30). Bonn: BICC.

While base conversion is, even in the best of circumstances, a long and complicated process, the municipalities and regions affected by the problem in CEE countries have had to face a number of additional difficulties. Especially in the first few years of the 1990s, base conversion had to be... more

Atanga, L. (2003, May). Tackling Small Arms in Central Africa (Paper series No. 29). Bonn: BICC.

This paper seeks to find out if an understanding of previous micro-disarmament programs could serve as the basis for policy measures that could effectively tackle the problem of small arms and their misuse in the sub-region of Central Africa. The paper attempts this by first reviewing the... more

Cho, M.-C. (2003, February). Restructuring of Korea’s Defense Aerospace Industry: Challenges and Opportunities? (Paper series No. 28). Bonn: BICC.

The purpose of this research is to examine Korea’s defense aerospace industry in pursuit of a new direction. In doing so, it aims to analyze the development of Korean aircraft industry while at the same time examining the extent of Korea’s dependence on the United States and its effort to pursue... more

Gomes Porto, J., & Parsons, I. (2003, February). Sustaining the Peace in Angola: An Overview of Current Demobilisation, Disarmament and Reintegration (Paper series No. 27). Bonn: BICC.

João Porto and Imogen Parsons have provided a vital ‘road map’ to current efforts aimed at achieving peaceful demilitarization in Angola. Through their carefully considered study of the dynamics involved in a complex phenomena – made doubly so by institutional density, shifting agendas on the part... more

Mawdsley, J. (2002, November). The gap between rhetoric and reality: Weapons acquisition and ESDP (Paper series No. 26). Bonn: BICC.

It is easy to exaggerate the problem of lack of legitimacy and it is important to remember that ESDP is only a part of national defence and security policies particularly in Britain and France. There are other simpler reasons too why there is a gap between ESDP rhetoric and its reality as discussed... more

Sedra, M. (2002, September). Challenging the warlord culture: Security sector reform in post-Taliban Afghanistan (Paper series No. 25). Bonn: BICC.

After systematically detailing the current security situation in the various regions of Afghanistan, with analyses of particularly ominous security breakdowns, this report will examine factors that have emerged in the context of the reconstruction process that have exacerbated insecurity. The... more

Ioannides, I. (2002, August). The European rapid reaction force: Implications for democratic accountability (Paper series No. 24). Bonn: BICC.

This study aims to provide an overview of democratic accountability aspects of the European Rapid Reaction Force (ERRF), taking into account that the development of an operational European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP) and the further fine tuning of the ERRF are part of a dynamic process. In... more

Mehreteab, A. (2002, August). Veteran combatants do not fade away: a comparative study on two demobilization and reintegration exercises in Eritrea (Paper series No. 23). Bonn: BICC.

After 30 years of armed struggle for independence, Eritrea enjoyed only seven years of peace before war with neighboring Ethiopia broke out again and still is under way. In the short peaceful interval, tremendous efforts were deployed not only to rebuild the country’s material infrastructure, which... more

Dimitrov, D. (2002, June). The restructuring and conversion of the Bulgarian defense industry during the transition period (Paper series No. 22). Bonn: BICC.

This paper will analyze the transformation processes in Bulgaria in order to determine which are the most influential factors leading to the sharp decline in the defense industry, and its costs—and benefits in the form of military conversion—to Bulgarian development. Secondly, it will analyze... more

Brzoska, M., Kingma, K., Wulf, H., & Ball, N. (2002, June). Voice and accountability in the security sector (Paper series No. 21). Bonn: BICC.

Decision-making on security sectors is dominated by elites, particularly military elites, because of unequal power and knowledge relations. In strengthening the institutions of accountability it is important to give high priority to strengthening the capacity of civilians to manage and monitor the... more

Farr, V. (2002, May). Gendering demilitarisation as a peacebuilding tool (Paper series No. 20). Bonn: BICC.

This paper will consider what the gender-aware demobilization, disarmament and reintegration that is called for in the Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security, adopted by the Security Council on October 31, 2000, might look like. In it it will be shown how gender awareness in the earliest... more

Brzoska, M., & Küchle, H. (2002, January). Folgen, Auswirkungen und Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten internationaler Abkommen für eine restriktive deutsche Rüstungsexportpolitik (Paper series No. 19). Bonn: BICC.

On behalf of the Research and Documentation Division of the German Bundestag, BICC conducted research on the following topics: • Effects and consequences of international/inter-state agreements and contracts on arms exports, or international arms cooperation and collaboration regarding German... more

Gormally, B. (2000, December). Conversion from war to peace: Reintegration of ex-prisoners in Northern Ireland (Paper series No. 18). Bonn: BICC.

The study of any set of conversion measures should not simply be, therefore, an examination of the practical techniques used, it should also involve an appreciation of the nature of the peace process itself. In this brief overview of the measures used in Northern Ireland to release and reintegrate... more

Faltas, S., & Anders, H. (2000, September). Combating the excessive and uncontrolled accumulation and spread of small arms: A compilation of policy recommendations (Paper series No. 17). Bonn: BICC.

This report lists policies and practical measures on effective small arms control recommended by various organizations and individuals.The European Commission ordered it because it wishes to implement the Council resolution of 21 May 1999. Though the report is meant for use in development policy,... more

Brzoska, M., Franko, P., & Husbands, J. (2000, March). Typology of military assets (Paper series No. 16). Bonn: BICC.

This report suggests a framework for a country interested in assessing the scope of its military assets that have potential for transformation into peaceful, productive purposes as part of a post-conflict or structural adjustment package. This report draws no conclusions as to an optimal level of... more

Mulvenon, J. (1999, September). Soldiers of fortune: The rise and fall of the Chinese military-business complex, 1978-1999 (Paper series No. 15). Bonn: BICC.

The tasks of this study are to examine the historical antecedents of the Chinese military-business complex, especially the imperial, pre-1949 and Maoist periods, focusing on the similarities and differences between the earlier systems and the current system.Furthermore, the study identifies the... more

Gonchar, K. (1998, April). Conversion within the context of economic reform: The case of Nizhniy Novgorod Oblast (Paper series No. 14). Bonn: BICC.

This report provides an analysis of the modern economic structure of Nizhniy Novgorod oblast and significant structural changes which took place after systemic reforms were launched with the special focus on defense industry and conversion. Niches for actual and potential growth have been... more

O'Meara Evans, P. (1997, August). Destruction of abandoned chemical weapons in China (Paper series No. 13). Bonn: BICC.

The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction (CWC) is a multilateral treaty which obligates its signatories to destroy their chemical weapons within ten years of the treaty's entry into force. It also bans the... more

Kopte, S. (1997, July). Nuclear submarine decommissioning and related problems (Paper series No. 12). Bonn: BICC.

This Paper provides an overview of the status and problems related to nuclear submarine decommissioning worldwide. After a brief description of the history and development of the world nuclear submarine forces, it discusses the main dismantlement and disposal technologies currently used. Here, it... more

Schofield, S., & Davis, I. (1997, June). Upgrades and surplus weapons: Lessons from the UK disposal sales agency (Paper series No. 11). Bonn: BICC.

Military cutbacks in the 1990s have led to a decline in the purchase of new weapon systems: the global value of transfers of major conventional weapons, as measured by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI, 1996) fell from a peak of US $46,535 million in 1987 to US $22,797... more

Kiggundu, M. (1997, June). Retrenchment programs in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons for demobilization (Paper series No. 10). Bonn: BICC.

Retrenchment is a byproduct of public sector reform, which in turn is a direct response to some of the early implementation problems of structural adjustment programs (SAP). It has received much less attention than public sector reform (PSR) as donors, policy makers and researchers have tended to... more

Larsen, S. (1997, May). An overview of defense conversion in Ukraine (Paper series No. 9). Bonn: BICC.

It has become widely recognized that defense conversion is not merely a theory, but a practical policy instrument and process requiring planning and management. Accordingly, practical guidelines for implementing successful conversion policies are necessary, and this study seeks to support that aim... more

Spencer, D. (1997, January). Demobilisation and reintegration in Central America (Paper series No. 8). Bonn: BICC.

This Paper reviews reductions in armed forces and opposition forces of Central American countries and the context of each demobilization experience. A brief background of the Central American peace process and the resolution of conflicts in Nicaragua and El Salvador will illustrate how a trend... more

Nübler, I. (1996, December). Human resources development and utilization in demobilization and reintegration programs (Paper series No. 7). Bonn: BICC.

The ultimate objective of all demobilization and reintegration efforts should be to improve the welfare of people. At the same time, people and their capabilities are considered an important means and instrument in achieving the various economic, social and political objectives of the... more

Di Chiaro III, J. (1996, November). Conference on dismantlement and destruction of nuclear, chemical and conventional weapons, 19-21 May 1996 (Paper series No. 6). Bonn: BICC.

From 19 to 21 May 1996, representatives of sixteen countries and five international organizations (see attached participants list) met at the Gästehaus Petersberg in Bonn, Germany, to discuss ongoing and future efforts in the dismantlement and destruction of nuclear, chemical and conventional... more

Wezeman, P., & Wezeman, S. (1996, June). Dutch surplus weapons (Paper series No. 5). Bonn: BICC.

The mixed conscript/professional army in the Netherlands with its high dependence on mobilization was transformed into a professional-only army after 1996. The large amounts of equipment necessary under the old standing army and mobilization system were no longer required. To cope with a then... more

Ejigu, M., & Gedamu, T. (1996, May). Conversion in Africa: Past experience and future outlook (Paper series No. 4). Bonn: BICC.

This paper, written in early 1995, is meant to provide a broad overview of conversion issues in Africa. It reviews the literature and information on conversion in Africa. It attempts to draw conclusions that may form the basis for further research about trends in military expenditure and personnel,... more

Kuznetsov, Y., Musienko, I., & Vorobyev, A. (1996, May). Learning to restructure: Studies of transformation in the Russian defense sector (Paper series No. 3). Bonn: BICC.

Perceptions of the Russian military–industrial complex, as they emerge from policy debates and academic literature, center around three major points. First, it is immense—the share of defense industry employment in overall industrial employment is about 25 percent. Second, the military–industrial... more

Klemmer, A. (1995, March). United Nations publications related to the subject of conversion: An annotated bibliography (Paper series No. 2). Bonn: BICC.

In the past, research in the area of military conversion was not a major focus of the departments in the UN Secretariat and the semi-autonomous and autonomous organizations of the United Nations system. Different perceptions of the concept of conversion by Member States blocked any initiative to... more

Brzoska, M., Kingma, K., & Wulf, H. (1995, February). Demilitarisation and conversion (Paper series No. 1). Bonn: BICC.

With the reductions of global military expenditure in recent years and the end of the East–West arms race, major opportunities for conversion exists. Conversion is often looked at as a narrow problem of retooling arms factories for civilian production. In fact, the reduction in military activity... more