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Dynamics of violent conflict

Results: 268

CoRE-NRW (2021). CoRE-NRW Forschungsbericht 2021 Bonn: BICC.

The research report 2021 of the CoRE-NRW network offers a systematic overview of the existing research landscape on extremism in Northrhine-Westphalia. more

Meininghaus, E., & Schlüsing, C. (2021). Translocality in War: Why Does it Matter? London: London School of Economics Middle East Blog.

In their blog post, the authors argue that translocality as a concept allows us to shed new light on a twofold process: how armed groups anchor themselves in and across local communities. This aspect matters for the communities and because understanding the translocal dimension... more

CoRE-NRW (2021). Antisemitismus: Perspektiven für die Radikalisierungsforschung Bonn: BICC.

Documentation of the online event "Antisemitismus: Perspektiven für die Radikalisierungsforschung" on 31 August 2021, organised by CoRE-NRW (Connecting Research on Extremism in North Rhine-Westphalia / Netzwerk für Extremismusforschung in Nordrhein-Westfalen). more

Schetter, C., & Trautner, B. (2021). Commentary \ Cooperation with the Taliban? Promoting civil society engagement in Afghanistan Bonn: BICC.

In addition to addressing the extent and cause of the debacle in Afghanistan, the new German Government must urgently consider how to set a new course to prevent further destabilisation of the country. In their commentary, Conrad Schetter (BICC) and Bernhard Trautner (DIE) emphasise that the... more

Neitzert, A. (2021, August). Ausstiegsarbeit gegen Extremismus in NRW: Eine vergleichende Analyse (BICC Working Paper series No. 2/2021). Bonn: BICC.

Exit programmes differ in their approaches depending on who is running them and who their target groups are. This BICC Working Paper develops an analytical framework to compare the different programmes, based on both a comprehensive literature review and interviews with practitioners. It takes into... more

Röing, T. (2021, August). Ist ein bisschen Deradikalisierung besser als keine? Zur Ausstiegsarbeit mit Rückkehrerinnen und Rückkehrern aus dschihadistischen Gruppen in Deutschland (BICC Working Paper series No. 1/2021). Bonn: BICC.

Between 2013 and 2019, more than 1,000 mostly young people left Germany to join jihadist groups in Syria and Iraq. BICC Working Paper 1\2021 addresses the question of how to counter the security threat posed by these returnees. Among other things, Germany is pursuing the path of resocialisation:... more

Döring, M., Neitzert, A., Röing, T., & von Boemcken, M. (2021, May). Abwarten ist keine Lösung! Für eine Kehrtwende im Umgang mit deutschen IS-Anhängerinnen und -Anhängern (BICC Policy Brief series No. 4/2021). Bonn: BICC.

The German government refuses to systematically repatriate German followers of IS who are incarcerated in northern Syria. It would not only be imperative for humanitarian reasons but would also be in Germany’s security polity interests. It is important to hold returnees accountable for their... more

Kemmerling, B., Schetter, C., & Wirkus, L. (2021). Addressing food crises in violent conflicts (Food System Summit Brief April 2021). Bonn: Scientific Group for the Food Systems Summit.

Food insecurity and hunger continue to threaten the lives and livelihoods of millions of people. In the context of the United Nations Food Systems Summit 2021, BICC reseachers Birgit Kemmerling, Conrad Schetter and Lars Wirkus published a briefing paper that looks at the multiple dimensions between... more

BICC (Ed.). (2020). Annual Report 2020. Bonn: BICC.

Restricted by the pandemic, BICC staff still continued their empirical research in regions characterised by forced displacement, volatile, violent conflicts and arms proliferation. BICC’s Annual Report illustrates the unique expertise of BICC: Research and policy advice that put the perspective of... more

Döring, M. (Ed.). (2020). Vorsicht, Ansteckungsgefahr. Stigmatisierung, Vorurteil und Diskriminierung: Der Einfluss der Corona-Krise auf extremistische Radikalisierungsprozesse in Deutschland. Bonn: CoRE-NRW.

The virtual CoRE-NRW workshop "Vorsicht, Ansteckungsgefahr: Stigmatisierung, Vorurteil und Diskriminierung - Der Einfluss der Corona-Krise auf extremistische Radikalisierungsprozesse in Deutschland“ on 17 June 2020 focused on the possible interfaces between the pandemic state of emergency and... more

Virchow, F., & Häusler, A. (2020). Pandemie-Leugnung und extreme Rechte in Nordrhein-Westfalen Bonn: BICC.

Week after week, Corona deniers take to the streets nationwide. Based on an extensive data collection, the CoRE-NRW Kurzgutachten 3 gives an overview of the protests in North Rhine-Westphalia and its administrative districts. The authors Fabian Virchow and Alexander Häusler, FORENA, University of... more

CoRE-NRW (2020). CoRE-NRW Forschungsbericht 2020 Bonn: CoRE-NRW.

The NRW Office for the Protection of the Constitution estimates that there are more than 4,000 right-wing extremists, almost half of whom are prepared to use violence, and the number is rising. Violent Islamism continues to pose a threat. This makes it all the more important to conduct research... more

Bales, M., & Schellhammer, L. (2020, July). Syrian war at the crossroads. Curbing arms flow, imposing a no-fly zone and opening al-Yarubiyah border crossing (BICC Policy Brief series No. 4/2020). Bonn: BICC.

The war in Syria, now in its tenth year, has resulted in more than 500,000 victims, 6.2 million internally displaced persons and 5.7 million refugees. 11.7 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance. To stop the humanitarian disaster and to address the pressing needs for civilian... more

Mockaitis, T. (2020). Commentary \ Policing, pandemic and the American racial divide. Bonn: BICC.

Over the past month the United States has experienced the greatest civil unrest since 1968. Demonstrations have occurred in more in 1700 towns and cities in all 50 states. Outrage over the killing of George Floyd by a Minneapolis police officer, caught on video, drew people into the streets to... more

Mkutu, K. (2020, June). Security dynamics in conservancies in Kenya: The case of Isiolo County (BICC Working Paper series No. 3/2020). Bonn: BICC.

The community-based conservation model is an increasing phenomenon in Kenya, especially in northern pastoralist counties. In BICC Working Paper 3\2020 the author Kennedy Mkutu considers dimensions of inclusion and exclusion and subsequent conflicts around community based conservancies in Isiolo... more

Brandsch, J. (2020). Killing civilians in civil war: The rationale of indiscriminate violence. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Indiscriminate violence against civilians is a recurrent phenomenon in armed conflicts. However, from a social science perspective this type of violence poses a puzzle.  Government and non-government indiscriminate violence is often assumed to have counterproductive effect and to be ultimately... more

Breitung, C. (2019, October). Why there is a need to reframe the discourse on armed groups in Mali: Requirements for successful disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (BICC Policy Brief series No. 8/2019). Bonn: BICC.

In Policy Brief „Why there is a need to reframe the discourse on armed groups in Mali” the author Claudia Breitung addresses requirements for successful disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration in the country. In particular, she gives the following policy recommendations: \ Get agreement on... more

BICC (Ed.). (2019). Annual Report 2019. Bonn: BICC.

Since its foundation in 1994, BICC (Bonn International Center for Conversion) has developed into one of the leading institutes for peace and conflict research in Europe. BICC’s Annual Report illustrates: The unique scientific expertise of the Center derives from the empirical insights that its... more

Grawert, E. (2019, September). Between reconciliation, resignation and revenge: (Re-)integration of refugees, internally displaced people and ex-combatants in Sierra Leone in a long-term perspective (BICC Working Paper series No. 8/2019). Bonn: BICC.

Sierra Leone is known for the successful reintegration of a high number of returning refugees  and internally displaced people (IDPs), many of whom had stayed in protracted displacement   situations during the eleven years of a most cruel internal war. The war was intertwined with... more

BICC, HSFK, IFSH, & INEF (Eds.). (2019). Friedensgutachten 2019. Berlin: LIT.

In peace and security policy, international and regional regulatory frameworks are under pressure, as are the institutions that serve to implement them. In this situation, the existing rules and institutions must be protected, and at the same time new rules and processes for securing peace must be... more

Grawert, E. (2019, March). Post-war reintegration and reconciliation: Learning from Sierra Leone (BICC Policy Brief series No. 4/2019). Bonn: BICC.

During the eleven years of civil war in Sierra Leone, more than two million people—more than half of the population—were displaced and between 50,000 and 70,000 people were killed. In BICC Policy Brief 4\2019 the author Elke Grawert addresses post-war reintegration and reconciliation. The... more

Meininghaus, E., Mielke, K., & Mutschler, M. (Eds.). (2019, February). Stabilisation—For whom and to what ends? (BICC Knowledge Notes series No. 1/2019). Bonn: BICC.

‘Stabilisation’ is becoming increasingly important as a policy paradigm in international security and development policy. However, different approaches to stabilisation are discussed in academia, policy and practice. Often, there is a tension between short-term approaches to stabilisation that are... more

BICC (Ed.). (2018). Annual Report 2018. Bonn: BICC.

In its Annual Report 2018, the international peace and conflict research Institute BICC analyzes the question of how peace and sustainability can be interlinked, and which challenges arise from this.  The Annual Report 2018 not only connects research projects on forced displacement with this... more

BICC, HSFK, IFSH, & INEF (Eds.). (2018). Friedensgutachten 2018. Berlin: LIT.

The world is currently far removed from a stable and just peace order. The wars in the Middle East, Africa and elsewhere have claimed thousands of victims and are forcing people to flee. The common concern for peace through international co-operation – for example in the United Nations (UN) – is... more

Nusrat, R. (2018). Strengthening the capacity of business to contribute to building peace in Afghanistan (International Alert Policy Brief May 2018). London: International Alert.

Please find the policy brief here. This policy brief provides recommendations for international donors on providing support to and investing in strengthening the capacities of medium-sized enterprises in Afghanistan and other fragile contexts. With various regional economic projects currently... more

Grawert, E., & Mielke, K. (2018, May). Exodus aus Afghanistan: Wie Deutschland Selbsthilfe und Eigeninitiativen unterstützen kann (BICC Policy Brief series No. 5/2018). Bonn: BICC.

In BICC Policy Brief 5\2018 the authors Katja Mielke and Elke Grawert discuss how Germany can support the agency of Afghans in protracted displacement. Based on their field research, they in particular recommend: \ Take the initiative for Afghanistan in the Global Compact for Migration: For... more

Schlüsing, C., & Mielke, K. (2018, May). Deutsches Engagement im Irak: Wie weniger mehr sein kann (BICC Policy Brief series No. 4/2018). Bonn: BICC.

The political situation in Iraq is highly dynamic. After the military defeat of the so-called Islamic State (IS) as a shared effort by the Global Coalition against Daesh in late 2017, parliamentary elections on 12 May 2018 are a chance for overhauling political agendas. With explicit policy... more

Grawert, E. (2018, April). Towards conflict-sensitive employment in large-scale infrastructure projects in fragile and conflict-affected settings: Recommendations for donor agencies (BICC Policy Brief series No. 3/2018). Bonn: BICC.

In BICC's recent Policy Brief “Towards conflict-sensitive employment in large-scale infrastructure projects in fragile and conflict-affected settings”, Elke Grawert, based on intensive discussions with owners, managers of construction and transport companies as well as employees and workers,... more

Isikozlu, E., & Heinke, S. (Eds.). (2018, April). “Dirty peace?” The political economy of peacebuilding (BICC Knowledge Notes series No. 1/2018). Bonn: BICC.

On 19 October 2017, BICC (Bonn International Center for Conversion) hosted its annual International Academic Conference entitled “‘Dirty Peace?’ The Political Economy of Peacebuilding” in Bonn. BICC Knowledge Note 1\2018, edited by Elvan Isikozlu and Susanne Heinke documents the conference... more

Richards, J. (2018). High risk or low risk: Screening for violent extremists in DDR programmes. International Peacekeeping, 25(3), 373-393.

Programmes of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) are increasingly implemented in contexts of violent extremist conflict. In such settings, DDR practitioners may need to distinguish between ex-combatants who can be safely reintegrated into civilian life, and ex-combatants who are... more

Meininghaus, E. (2018, February). War in Syria: UN peacekeeping mission and deal with Russia are imperative (BICC Policy Brief series No. 2/2018). Bonn: BICC.

In BICC's recent Policy Brief "War in Syria: UN peacekeeping mission and deal with Russia are imperative", Esther Meininghaus analyses key trends in the Syrian war and stresses the imperative of a UN peace mission as part of a Grand Bargain with Russia. The author outlines the ... more

Richards, J. (2018). Troop retention in civil wars: Desertion, denunciation, and military organization in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Global Security Studies, 3(1), 38-55.

This article investigates the link between the organizational structure of nonstate armed groups and the ability of low-level combatants to desert without recapture. Throughout, I show that nonstate armed groups can adopt organizational structures that mimic those found in national armies and that... more

Jung, A. (2017). Innovation in reintegration programming: Which approaches can be relevant for South Sudan?. Bonn: BICC.

This Paper offers a comparative overview of innovation found (globally) specific to reintegration programming, and it reflects upon the utility of these innovative approaches in the socio-political context of South Sudan. It intends to facilitate discussion and development of a context-specific and... more

Richards, J. (2017). Demobilising and disengaging violent extremists: Towards a new UN framework. Stability: International Journal of Security and Development, 6(1), 14: 1-5.

First and second generation programmes of Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR), are no longer ‘fit for purpose’ in contexts of violent extremism. Recognising this, voices from within the United Nations (UN) system have recently called for the development of a practice framework... more

BICC (Ed.). (2017). Annual Report 2017. Bonn: BICC.

Civil wars, such as in Syria/ Iraq, Afghanistan, South Sudan or in Donbass persist, as does forced migration as an effect of violent conflicts around the world. Researchers of the peace and conflict research institute BICC (Bonn International Center for Conversion) conduct empirical research and... more

Schlüsing, C., & Mielke, K. (2017, October). Drohende Gewalteskalation nach dem Referendum: Wie kann deutsche Einflussnahme in Kurdistan-Irak deeskalierend wirken? (BICC Policy Brief series No. 8/2017). Bonn: BICC.

In Policy Brief 8/2017 "After the referendum: How can Germany contribute to de-escalation in Kurdistan–Iraq?, the authors Carina Schlüsing and Katja Mielke outline the following recommendations: \ Review Germany's support mission to the Peshmerga in Iraq  In view of a possible... more

Grawert, E., Isikozlu, E., Murtaza Haqeeqat, M., & Shirzad, F. (2017). Conflict-sensitive employment framework (CSEF) for construction and transport companies. Bonn: BICC.

When companies operate in fragile and conflict-affected settings (FCAS), they encounter a range of particular problems. Many companies try to protect staff, premises and ­machinery by hiring security guards. Armed guards ­escort convoys of trucks. Expenditures for security ­measures can be quite... more

Mielke, K., & Miszak, N. (2017, September). Jihadi-Salafism in Afghanistan—Beyond Taliban, Al-Qaeda and Daesh: Options for German foreign and development policy (BICC Policy Brief series No. 6/2017). Bonn: BICC.

Since July 2017, the declared liberation of Mosul, Iraq, and the expected fall of Raqqa, Syria, has brought the debate about the survival of so-called Islamic State (Daesh) to the forefront. BICC policy Brief “Jihadi-Salafism in Afghanistan—Beyond Taliban, Al-Qaeda and Daesh” discusses options for... more

Breitung, C. (2017, September). South Sudan’s stalled peace process—security arrangements in need of adjustment (BICC Policy Brief series No. 5/2017). Bonn: BICC.

According to the largely stalled Agreement on the Resolution of Conflict in South Sudan (ARCSS) of 2015, a key component of the transitional security arrangement is the establishment of cantonment sites where fighters assemble to await disarmament, demobilization or force integration. The... more

Mielke, K., & Miszak, N. (2017, July). Making sense of Daesh in Afghanistan: A social movement perspective (BICC Working Paper series No. 6/2017). Bonn: BICC.

BICC Working Paper 6\2017 “Making sense of Daesh in Afghanistan: A social movement perspective” builds on a ten-month fieldwork-based research project conducted in four regions—east, west, northeast and north Afghanistan—during 2016. The authors Katja Mielke and Nick Miszak analyze so-called... more

Grawert, E., & Shirzad, F. (2017, July). Conflict-sensitive employment in Afghan construction and transport companies (BICC Working Paper series No. 5/2017). Bonn: BICC.

With the aim of identifying the challenges of and motives for conflict-sensitive employment, the authors Elke Grawert (BICC) and Fazalrabi Shirzad (The Liaison Office, TLO) present a qualitative study on construction and transport companies in Afghanistan, based on interviews with company owners... more

Grawert, E. (2017). Defending economic privileges: The role of militaries in the Arab Spring. In U. Rabi, & A. Bouasria (Eds.), Lost in translation. New paradigms for the Arab Spring (pp. 54-77). Brighton: Sussex Academic Press.

Lost in Translation: New Paradigms for the Arab Spring is a contributory work by Middle East experts. As well as political and social analysis of the events and aftermath of the Arab Spring, the work provides a complex of paradigms (ranging from complexity studies to sport) which have thus far... more

Grawert, E., Nusrat, R., & Shah, Z. (2017, May). Afghanistan’s cross-border trade with Pakistan and Iran and the responsibility for conflict-sensitive employment (BICC Working Paper series No. 4/2017). Bonn: BICC.

This Working Paper focuses on transporters, i. e. hauliers, as important actors in the border areas between Afghanistan and its neighbours Pakistan and Iran. The transport sector is sensitive to market fluctuations and a volatile business environment, reacting strongly with increasing or declining... more

Python, A., Brandsch, J., & Tskhay, A. (2017). Provoking local ethnic violence – A global study on ethnic polarization and terrorist targeting. Political Geography, 58(May 2017), 77-89.

This article theorizes and empirically investigates the link between ethnic divisions and terrorist attacks on a local scale. We argue that terrorists in ethnic contexts can use two separate provocation strategies: one targeting the government and one targeting opposing ethnic groups in order to... more

Mutschler, M. (2017). Auf dem Weg zur flüchtigen Kriegführung? Flüchtige Moderne und Krieg im 21. Jahrhundert. In H. Ehrhart (Ed.), Krieg im 21. Jahrhundert. Konzepte, Akteure, Herausforderungen (pp. 56-70). Baden-Baden: Nomos.

War in the 21st century is more complex, volatile, society based and information intensive than ever before. One could simplify the description of waging war as different combinations of highly modern, traditional and asymmetric components, which, according to the postmodern maxim “anything goes”,... more

Prinz, J., & Schetter, C. (2017). Conditioned sovereignty: The creation and legitimation of spaces of violence in counterterrorism operations of the "war on terror". Alternatives, 41(3), 119-136.

We argue that the spatialization of violence in the counterterrorism operations of the War on Terror provides insight for understanding how these operations are legitimized and how they pose a challenge to an international order centered on state sovereignty. Against the background of a discussion... more

Meininghaus, E., & Heinemann-Grüder, A. (2017, February). Safe zones for Syria: Mitigating the humanitarian crisis (BICC Policy Brief series No. 1/2017). Bonn: BICC.

The upcoming Syria negotiations in Geneva on 20 February 2017 may prove fundamental in deciding on the future of the country. In their Policy Brief “Safe zones for Syria. Mitigating the Humanitarian Crisis”, BICC researchers Esther Meininghaus and Andreas Heinemann-Grüder discuss the question... more

Grawert, E., Hansohm, D., & Nusrat, R. (2017, January). Is conflict sensitivity applicable to employment? (BICC Working Paper series No. 1/2017). Bonn: BICC.

“Conflict-sensitivity” is a catchword that addresses business practices in environments of armed conflict. The United Nations Global Compact and international finance institutions are devoting efforts into convincing companies to comply with principles aiming to provide the private sector with a... more

Acharya, N., Grumel, O., & Vranckx, A. (2016, November). Safety first (BICC Knowledge Notes series No. 2/2016). Bonn: BICC.

This Knowledge Note provides an insight into current realities, behaviour and practices in arms and ammunition storage sites in north-western DR Congo. Tailored recommendations for strengthening ammunition and weapons safety by improving physical security measures and renovating infrastructural... more

Schetter, C., & Mielke, K. (2016). Was von Kundus bleibt. Intervention, Gewalt und Soziale Ordnung in Afghanistan. Politische Vierteljahresschrift, 57(4), 614-642.

This article investigates interdependencies between intervening powers and local dynamics in Afghanistan in general and with a focus on the Kunduz region between 2001 and 2015. Using the concept of „Social Order“ the authors analyse how understandings of contexts and self-understandings of... more

Richards, J. (2016). Implementing DDR in settings of ongoing conflict: The organization and fragmentation of armed groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Stability: International Journal of Security and Development, 5(1), 1-10.

Although it is common for armed groups to splinter (or “fragment”) during contexts of multi-party civil war, current guidance on Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) does not address the challenges that arise when recalcitrant fighters, unwilling to report to DDR, break ranks and... more

Breitung, C., Paes, W.-C., & van de Vondervoort, L. (2016, September). In need of a critical re-think: Security sector reform in South Sudan (BICC Working Paper series No. 6/2016). Bonn: BICC.

Past attempts at security sector reform (SSR) and disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) in South Sudan have made no significant contribution to ‘right-sizing’ the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) and were unable to sustainably change South Sudan’s security apparatus. Taking into... more

Isikozlu, E., & Heinke, S. (Eds.). (2016, June). Networks of organised violence (BICC Knowledge Notes series No. 1/2016). Bonn: BICC.

On 28 October 2015, BICC hosted its annual international conference entitled “Networks of Organised Violence”. The topic of the conference was chosen because of a perceived shift from the primacy of the state to the importance of networks in perpetrating organised violence. Its aim was to view... more

von Boemcken, M. (2016). Unknowing the unknowable. From ‘critical war studies’ to a critique of war. Critical Military Studies, 2(3), 226-241.

Recent critical interventions challenge the Enlightenment critique of war as the radical antithesis of ‘peace’. The negation of war as an epitome of unreason is, indeed, dangerous to the extent that it tends to excite pacifying ‘wars against war’. Yet, what follows from this? The article argues... more

Grawert, E., & Abul-Magd, Z. (Eds.). (2016). Businessmen in arms: How the military and other armed groups profit in the MENA Region. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

The Arab Uprisings have brought renewed attention to the role of the military in the MENA region, where they are either the backbone of regime power or a crucial part of patronage networks in political systems. This collection of essays from international experts examines the economic interests of... more

Meininghaus, E. (2016). Humanitarianism in intra-state conflict: aid inequality and local governance in government- and opposition-controlled areas in the Syrian war. Third World Quarterly, 37(8), 1454-1482.

This article argues that humanitarian aid in intra-state conflict plays a crucial but largely unrecognised role in shaping the preconditions for negotiations for peace and post-conflict reconstruction. Drawing on a spatial theory approach, it identifies the role of humanitarian aid as not being... more

Meininghaus, E. (2016). Creating consent in Ba'thist Syria: Women and welfare in a totalitarian state. London: I.B. Tauris.

The challenge of maintaining dictatorial regimes through control, co-option and coercion while upholding a facade of legitimacy is something that has concerned leaders throughout the Middle East and beyond. Nowhere is this more evident than in the Syria ruled by the Asads, both Hafiz and his son... more

Heinemann-Grüder, A. (2016). Entspannung, Eindämmung oder Regimewechsel?: Paradigmen der internationalen Beziehungen und Politikoptionen im "Ukrainekonflikt". Zeitschrift für Politik, 63(1), 45-64.

Russia’s foreign policy decision-making process is an enigma. Four explanations compete in order to understand Russia’s Ukraine policy: offensive interpretations, including imperial readings, defensive neorealism, a situational and a domestic politics interpretation. The article discusses the... more

Isikozlu, E. (2015). Commentary \ The seduction of simplicity: Popular claims following the Paris attacks. Bonn: BICC.

Elvan Isikozlu, researcher at BICC, comments on the aftermath of the Paris attacks. She argues that “the discourse following the attacks has been full of generalisations, oversimplifications and dichotomies, none of which help to better grasp who and what we in the West are dealing with.”She comes... more

Grawert, E. (2015). Anhaltend, ungelöst: Der Darfur-Konflikt und die Erfolglosigkeit der VN-Einsätze im Sudan. Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung, 4(2), 262-308.

The Darfur conflict is part of a bigger lasting violent conflict that had been latent since the 1980 s and erupted massively between 2003 and 2006. Characterized by national conflict constellations within Sudan and South Sudan, as well as violent conflicts crossing borders. International actors are... more

Heinemann-Grüder, A. (2015). Putins Krieg im Osten. Beschwichtigen oder abschrecken?. Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik, 8(4), 573-588.

What could be the lessons of the Ukraine conflict for German and European politics? On the backdrop of deep divisions in Germany and the EU over an appropriate Russia policy, the article discusses three options. A policy of appeasement and détente aims at a balance of power among the great powers... more

Mielke, K., & Schetter, C. (2015). Commentary \ The case of Kunduz. Bonn: BICC.

In their commentary on the return of the Taliban to Kunduz, Katja Mielke and Conrad Schetter, researchers at BICC, call for a critical analysis of the Bundeswehr deployment to Afghanistan. “The question isn’t whether or not more soldiers ought to be deployed to Afghanistan, but rather what has been... more

Isikozlu, E., & Heinke, S. (Eds.). (2015, June). Facing organised violence: Research agendas and conversion potentials (BICC Knowledge Notes series No. 2/2015).

On the occasion of its 20th anniversary, the Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC) hosted a two-day international academic conference on “Facing Organised Violence: Research Agendas and Conversion Potentials” from 27 to 28 October 2014 in Bonn. The aim of the conference was to approach... more

Faltas, S. (2015). Report on the work of the arms registration and marking (ARM) program and on community security and arms control (CSAC) in West Darfur (in Arabic). Bonn: BICC.

In the “Report on the Work of the Arms Registration and Marking (ARM) Program and on Community Security and Arms Control (CSAC) in West Darfur (in Arabic)" Dr Sami Faltas presents the results of his field research in West Darfur, Sudan. The study was assigned by BICC and the Sudan DDR... more

Faltas, S. (2014). Report on the work of the arms registration and marking (ARM) program and on community security and arms control (CSAC) in West Darfur. Bonn: BICC.

In the “Report on the Work of the Arms Registration and Marking (ARM) Program and on Community Security and Arms Control (CSAC) in West Darfur” Dr Sami Faltas presents the results of his field research in West Darfur, Sudan. The study was assigned by BICC and the Sudan DDR Commission (SDDRC). The... more

Kaitinnis, A. (2014). Auswärtige Kultur-und Bildungspolitik in Staaten im Umbruch am Beispiel Myanmars. Stuttgart/Berlin: Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen (ifa).

In the study “Auswärtige Kultur-und Bildungspolitik in Staaten im Umbruch am Beispiel Myanmars”, Anna Kaitinnis, visiting researcher at BICC in 2013, looks at the complicated process of democratization of Myanmar under its military dictatorship and the role German foreign cultural and education... more

Richards, J. (2014). Forced, coerced, and voluntary recruitment into rebel and militia groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 52(2), 301-326.

Why do non-state armed groups forcibly recruit civilians? To address this question I develop a conceptual framework distinguishing voluntary, coerced and forced recruitment. I then compare the recruitment tactics employed by ‘Mai-Mai’ militias and the RCD-Goma rebel group in the Democratic Republic... more

Schetter, C. (2014). Commentary \ The new German foreign policy: Responsibility and interests. Bonn: BICC.

Only rarely does one experience such a unanimous and clear commitment to a new direction Germany’s foreign policy is taking as at the security conference late January in Munich. In unison, Federal President Joachim Gauck, Foreign Minister Walter Steinmeier and Defense Minister Ursula von der Leyen... more

Grawert, E. (Ed.). (2014). Forging Two Nations Insights on Sudan and South Sudan. Addis Ababa: Organisation for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa.

One nation becoming two- looking into an arduous process ridden with violence, and sketching out the struggles with the legacies of an already troubled history, are the motivations for this publication on the Republic of Sudan and the Republic of South Sudan. The governments and societies of the... more

Bonn International Center for Conversion (2013). Impact assessment of the reintegration component. Bonn: BICC.

The new Demobilisation, Disarmament and Reintegration Programme (NDDRP) in the Republic of South Sudan was launched by the National Demobilisation, Disarmament and Reintegration Commission (NDDRC) on behalf of the South Sudanese government in 2012. A pilot program started in April 2013 and is due... more

Wilde, A., & Mielke, K. (2013). Order, stability, and change in Afghanistan: From top-down to bottom-up state-making. Central Asian Survey, 32(3), 353-370.

This article presents findings from long-term empirical fieldwork and archival research into current and historical patterns of governance in north-eastern Afghanistan, conducted between 2006 and 2009. Despite the long civil war, striking continuities have been found in the make-up and functioning... more

Heinemann-Grüder, A. (2013). Der ewige Friedensfreund oder „Warum sich den Kopf verrenken, wenn wir für den Frieden sind?". Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik, 6(4), 543–561.

Peace activists, politicians, and the military ask for more capacities in civil conflict transformation. However, the contribution of NGOs depends on context. Civil conflict transformation necessitates a minimum of civilization, it does not solve issues of manifest violence. The nature of the... more

Ebertz, U., & Müller-Koné, M. (2013, June). Legacy of a resource-fueled war: The role of generals in Angola’s mining sector (BICC Focus series No. 12). Bonn: BICC.

After a sketch of the current need for reform in the Kimberley Process for rough diamonds, BICC Focus 12 “Legacy of a resource-fueled war: The role of generals in Angola’s mining sector” scrutinizes the role that generals of the Angolan state armed forces FAA play in Angola’s mining... more

von Boemcken, M. (2012, September). Dealing with private security companies. Options for development cooperation in Timor-Leste, Liberia and Peru (BICC Focus series No. 11). Bonn: BICC.

How should development actors deal with private security companies? This BICC publication summarizes the main findings from field research led by Marc von Boemcken on private security companies in three developing countries: Timor-Leste, Liberia and Peru. Each summary focuses on the specific... more

Schetter, C., & Prinz, J. (2012). Counterinsurgency, anthropology, retreat – The US military's COIN ‘Strategy’ in Afghanistan. Orient 53 (2), 24-34.

The COIN strategy of the US Military was conceived as a response to the lack of strategy in the intervention in Afghanistan. An analysis of the core elements and a presentation of the major political connections of the intervention suggest that on this basis they cannot provide an answer for the... more

von Boemcken, M., Ashkenazi, M., & Schmitz-Pranghe, C. (2011, December). Commercial security and development: Findings from Timor-Leste, Liberia and Peru (Brief series No. 45). Bonn: BICC.

Commercial security affects a number of development-related factors, such as the capacity of states to govern, overall feelings of public safety, economic growth and social welfare.Findings from field research in Timor-Leste, Liberia and Peru indicate that the relation between commercial security... more

Isikozlu, E. (2011). Kriegsvergewaltigung. Eine Typologie. W&F, Wissenschaft und Frieden – Dossier 67.

“Wartime rape-A Typology” aims at developing a typology of wartime rape as a first step toward understanding the different consequences of this form of violence in war. This typology is based on the examination of wartime rape in Bosnia and Herzegovina and El Salvador as well on a review of the... more

Isikozlu, E., & Millard, A. (2010, September). Towards a typology of wartime rape (Brief series No. 43). Bonn: BICC.

BICC brief 43 “Towards a Typology of wartime rape” aims at developing a typology of wartime rape as a first step toward understanding the different consequences of this form of violence in war. This typology is based on the examination of wartime rape in Bosnia and Herzegovina and El Salvador as... more

Koltermann, F. (2010, August). Der Gaza-Krieg im Bild (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

This Occasional Paper analyzes the photographic reporting of the German daily newspapers Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ) and Süddeutsche Zeitung (SZ) about the Gaza war (2008/2009).This paper is based on the assumption that photographic reporting as photojournalistic war photography represents... more

Runge, P. (2009, October). The provincial reconstruction teams in Afghanistan: Role model for civil-military relations? (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

The main purpose of this Occasional Paper is to provide a humanitarian perspective to the ongoing debate about PRTs as a role model for civil-military relations. It will analyze the security dilemma in Afghanistan and the impact of the PRTs on the delivery of humanitarian aid. It will further... more

Radecke, H. (2009, April). Sierra Leone: Mit Sicherheit eine gute Wahl? Eine Zwischenbilanz der demokratischen Friedenskonsolidierung (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

This Occasional Paper focuses on the analysis of individual measures fostering democratic peace consolidation in Sierra Leone. Following a theoretical introduction, the political history of Sierra Leone is described briefly. The main part consists of the presentation and evaluation of the... more

Heinze, M.-C. (2008, February). Die Peacebuilding Commission der Vereinten Nationen: Ein Generalschlüssel für den Frieden? (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

Most experts agree that sustainable peace consolidation demands more than a mere end of violence. Besides the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) of ex-combatants and the re-establishment of national security and the state monopoly of violence it also needs the establishment and... more

Friedrich, R., & Luethold, A. (Eds.). (2007). Entry-points to Palestinian security sector reform. Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF).

Security sector reform (SSR) is on top of the Palestinian reform agenda. Palestinians want effective and accountable security forces that respond to their security needs. For them, security sector reform is also necessary to advance Palestinian state-building. However, many political organisations... more

Beeck, C. (2007, June). Re-paving the road to peace: Analysis of the implementation of DD&R in Aceh Province, Indonesia (Brief series No. 35). Bonn: BICC.

BICC brief 35 presents the findings of the BICC Project “Analysis of the implementation of DD&R (Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration) in Aceh Province, Indonesia”, deriving from interviews conducted with a variety of actors in Aceh in November 2006, and the analysis of secondary... more

Burghardt, D., Delisle, R., & Heinrich, M. (2007, May). Konzeptpapier Integrierte Missionen Für ein effizientes Friedensengagement Das Konzept der Integrierten Missionen (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

This study presents the concept of UN integrated peace missions and, by looking at three examples, analyzes its practical implementation. The missions under review (mission in Haiti—MINUSTAH; in Sudan—UNMIS, and in Liberia—UNMIL) show that the concept is applied differently with varying degrees of... more

Schure, J., & Kantel, V. (2007, May). Governing the gift of nature resource conflict monitor: The links between governance, conflict and natural resources (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

The cocoa trade from Côte d’Ivoire, the country’s main commodity has played a major role in the four-and-a-half-years of armed conflict. Over US $118 million revenues from the cocoa trade flowed into the conflict by funding both the government and the rebel group ‘Forces Nouvelles (FN)’ in the... more

Warnecke, A., Brethfeld, J., & Franke, V. (2007, March). Agents of peace or agents of war? The role of the African diaspora in conflict processes (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

The issue 'diaspora' is seeing a revival in political discussion today. One of the factors determining this revival is the debate on improving the chances of integration for migrants; another one is the discussion on the challenges arising from the increasing influx of people from poor countries... more

Beeck, C. (2006, December). Following the election of the Governor in Aceh: Former war-torn province on its way to peace consolidation and stability (BICC Focus series No. 3). Bonn: BICC.

The elections on 11 December 2006, at which the people of Aceh were able to directly elect their governor for the first time, can be regarded as the climax of the peace process in Indonesia to date; a process which began with the signing of the Helsinki Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) in August... more

von Boemcken, M., & Krieger, N. (2006, December). Konzeptpapier - "Early warning - early action" Entwicklungspolitische Instrumente zur frühzeitigen Eindämmung von Gewaltkonflikten (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

This concept paper puts forward a theoretical model for identifying and classifying types of causes of militant behavior. This model is intended to help improve the structure of pro-active prevention measures. BICC is thus providing a methodical contribution to identifying how a policy of crisis... more

Warnecke, A. (2006, December). Länderstudien - "Early warning - early action" Entwicklungspolitische Instrumente zur frühzeitigen Eindämmung von Gewaltkonflikten (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

This analysis attempts to sum up and compare existing mechanisms in OECD member states for early warning and the prevention of crises. Based on this analysis, the comparative advantages of single measures are to be presented. At the same time, recommendations for future engagement will be... more

Radecke, H., & Paes, W.-C. (2006, September). Zwischen Ignoranz, Delegation und dem Ruf nach militärischem Aktionismus: Die internationale Staatengemeinschaft und der Konflikt in Darfur (BICC Focus series No. 2). Bonn: BICC.

The deployment of the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) in Darfur has been stylized on several occasions as a test case for the new African security architecture. However, before the failure of the Mission is attested, this BICC Focus will investigate the background and operating conditions of... more

Böge, V. (2006, June). Water governance in Southern Africa — Cooperation and conflict prevention in transboundary river basins (Brief series No. 33). Bonn: BICC.

Nowadays water security is an essential component both of the national security of individual states and of international security, because all dimensions of an extended security concept (food security, economic security, environmental security, human security at large) are dependent on water... more

Aust, B., & Jaspers, W. (2006, May). From resource war to ‘Violent Peace’: Transition in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (Paper series No. 50). Bonn: BICC.

The first section of the paper provides an assessment of the current state of the ‘peace’ process: Political and security-related developments of the past years are analyzed with a special focus on continuities and changes of politico-economic structures and networks of its former war economy. This... more

Böge, V., Fitzpatrick, C., Jaspers, W., & Paes, W.-C. (2006, February). Who’s minding the store? - The business of private, public and civil actors in zones of conflict (Brief series No. 32). Bonn: BICC.

In the context of the discourse on ‘new wars’, in which economic motives and agendas are of major importance, increasing attention is being focused on the role of the private business sector in contemporary violent conflicts and wars. Private business can contribute both to the outbreak of violent... more

Koth, M. (2005, June). To end a war: Demobilisation and reintegration of paramilitaries in Colombia (Paper series No. 43). Bonn: BICC.

Paper 43 is a result of a cooperation between the Colombian foundation “Ideas para la Paz”, the Universidad de los Andes, and the Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC), which started in 2002 at a conference in Bogota entitled “Voces y opciones del desarme: Enseñanzas adquiridas de la... more

Pietz, T. (2005, June). Demobilizing and retraining for the future: The armed forces in Serbia and Montenegro (Brief series No. 31). Bonn: BICC.

BICC brief 31, issued jointly by the Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of the Armed Forces (DCAF) and the Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC), is the product of a series of activities conducted by these organizations on “Demobilization and Reintegration in the Western... more

Chrobok, V. (2005, April). Demobilising and reintegrating Afghanistan’s young soldiers: A review and assessment of program planning and implementation (Paper series No. 42). Bonn: BICC.

This report has been written to reflect some of the debates between different actors and partners involved in the process of demobilization and reintegration of former combatants in Afghanistan, and to examine the planning, coordination and early implementation of UNICEF’s program to demobilize and... more

Grosse-Kettler, S. (2004, November). External actors in stateless Somalia: A war economy and its promoters (Paper series No. 39). Bonn: BICC.

The overall aim of this paper is to provide an understanding of the role external actors play in Somalia’s war economy. To achieve this, the study will take a close look at the impact of international economic agents; that is, individuals, groups of people, corporations and institutions based... more

Brzoska, M., & Croll, P. (2004, September). Promoting security: But how and for whom? - Contributions to BICC’s ten-year anniversary conference (Brief series No. 30). Bonn: BICC.

BICC brief 30 documents the international conference “Promoting Security: But How and For Whom?” which took place on from 1 to 2 April 2004 in Bonn and was dedicated to BICC’s 10th anniversary.The conference discussed six topics, each of which was to be deliberated in its own discussion... more

Lewis, S. (2004, August). Rejuvenating or restraining civil war: The role of external actors in the war economies of Sudan (Paper series No. 37). Bonn: BICC.

In the political arena, the revenue from oil had a direct impact on the delicate balance of military power between the Government of Sudan and its principal enemy, the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). This report analyzes how the funds from the oil boom have allowed the government side to buy... more

Brömmelhörster, J., & Paes, W.-C. (Eds.). (2003). The military as an economic actor - Soldiers in business. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Armed forces across the globe engage in economic activities both in times of war and peace. This book provides a critical analysis of this phenomenon, comparing experiences with "military business" from four continents (Asia, Africa, Europe and Latin America). Taking an interdisciplinary... more

Sedra, M. (2003, August). Confronting Afghanistan’s security dilemma: Reforming the security sector (Brief series No. 28). Bonn: BICC.

BICC brief 28 documents the e-conference “Afghanistan: Assessing the Progress of Security Sector Reform, One Year After the Geneva Conference”, which took place from 4 to 11 June 2003. About 100 participants, amongst them representatives of international organizations, research institutes and civil... more

Heinemann-Grüder, A., Pietz, T., & Duffy, S. (2003, August). Turning soldiers into a work force: Demobilization and reintegration in post-Dayton Bosnia and Herzegovina (Brief series No. 27). Bonn: BICC.

BICC brief 27 summarizes the insights gained and lessons learned from the downsizing of the armed forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) in the wake of the Dayton Peace Accords (DPA) of December 1995.The three major reintegration projects covered by this report (two World Bank projects and one run... more

Gomes Porto, J., & Parsons, I. (2003, February). Sustaining the Peace in Angola: An Overview of Current Demobilisation, Disarmament and Reintegration (Paper series No. 27). Bonn: BICC.

João Porto and Imogen Parsons have provided a vital ‘road map’ to current efforts aimed at achieving peaceful demilitarization in Angola. Through their carefully considered study of the dynamics involved in a complex phenomena – made doubly so by institutional density, shifting agendas on the part... more

Heinemann-Grüder, A. (2002, September). Becoming an ex-military Man: Demobilization and reintegration of military professionals in Eastern Europe (Brief series No. 26). Bonn: BICC.

BICC brief 26 concerns Eastern Europe’s management of reintegration of military servicemen into civilian life. It looks particularly at the experiences gathered in Ukraine, Russia, Poland and Hungary after the demise of socialism. The prime goal is to generalize experiences, identify shortcomings... more

Sedra, M. (2002, September). Challenging the warlord culture: Security sector reform in post-Taliban Afghanistan (Paper series No. 25). Bonn: BICC.

After systematically detailing the current security situation in the various regions of Afghanistan, with analyses of particularly ominous security breakdowns, this report will examine factors that have emerged in the context of the reconstruction process that have exacerbated insecurity. The... more

Mehreteab, A. (2002, August). Veteran combatants do not fade away: a comparative study on two demobilization and reintegration exercises in Eritrea (Paper series No. 23). Bonn: BICC.

After 30 years of armed struggle for independence, Eritrea enjoyed only seven years of peace before war with neighboring Ethiopia broke out again and still is under way. In the short peaceful interval, tremendous efforts were deployed not only to rebuild the country’s material infrastructure, which... more

Brzoska, M., Kingma, K., Wulf, H., & Ball, N. (2002, June). Voice and accountability in the security sector (Paper series No. 21). Bonn: BICC.

Decision-making on security sectors is dominated by elites, particularly military elites, because of unequal power and knowledge relations. In strengthening the institutions of accountability it is important to give high priority to strengthening the capacity of civilians to manage and monitor the... more

Farr, V. (2002, May). Gendering demilitarisation as a peacebuilding tool (Paper series No. 20). Bonn: BICC.

This paper will consider what the gender-aware demobilization, disarmament and reintegration that is called for in the Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security, adopted by the Security Council on October 31, 2000, might look like. In it it will be shown how gender awareness in the earliest... more

Hauswedell, C., & Brown, K. (2002, April). Burying the hatchet. The decommissioning of paramilitary arms in Northern Ireland (Brief series No. 22). Bonn: BICC.

BICC brief 22 “Burying the Hatchet-The Decommissioning of Paramilitary Arms in Northern Ireland” reflects the research of a joint project of BICC and INCORE. The project aims to monitor the implementation of the Belfast Agreement and to analyse the governing provisions of the peace accord with... more

Heinemann-Grüder, A., & Paes, W.-C. (2001, September). Wag the dog: The mobilization and demobilization of the Kosovo Liberation Army (Brief series No. 20). Bonn: BICC.

BICC brief 20 “Wag the Dog” is about the creation of the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) in the 1990s as well as the dissolution of the guerilla force after the establishment of a protectorate under the aegis of the United Nations and NATO in Summer 1999.More than two years later, this is... more

Gormally, B. (2000, December). Conversion from war to peace: Reintegration of ex-prisoners in Northern Ireland (Paper series No. 18). Bonn: BICC.

The study of any set of conversion measures should not simply be, therefore, an examination of the practical techniques used, it should also involve an appreciation of the nature of the peace process itself. In this brief overview of the measures used in Northern Ireland to release and reintegrate... more

Wulf, H. (2000, May). Security sector reform (Brief series No. 15). Bonn: BICC.

Five papers are published in BICC brief 15 “Security Sector Reform”, originally presented at an international BICC conference entitled “The Contribution of Disarmament and Conversion to Conflict Prevention and its Relevance for Development Cooperation”. more

Hart, J., & Miller, C. (Eds.). (1997). Chemical weapon destruction in Russia: Political, legal and technical aspects. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

A meeting of 30 experts was held in Bonn, Germany, in November 1996 to discuss various aspects of the destruction of chemical weapons in the Russian Federation. This volume, supported by the Volkswagen Foundation and produced in co-operation with the Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC),... more

Kingma, K. (1997). Demobilization of combatants after civil wars in Africa and their reintegration into civilian life. Policy Sciences, 30(3), 151–165.

In the past few years, several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa conducted large scale demobilizations. These are positive signs and create opportunities for sustainable peace and human development. However, demobilization appears to be a complex process. It is closely linked to security issues; and... more

Spencer, D. (1997, January). Demobilisation and reintegration in Central America (Paper series No. 8). Bonn: BICC.

This Paper reviews reductions in armed forces and opposition forces of Central American countries and the context of each demobilization experience. A brief background of the Central American peace process and the resolution of conflicts in Nicaragua and El Salvador will illustrate how a trend... more

Nübler, I. (1996, December). Human resources development and utilization in demobilization and reintegration programs (Paper series No. 7). Bonn: BICC.

The ultimate objective of all demobilization and reintegration efforts should be to improve the welfare of people. At the same time, people and their capabilities are considered an important means and instrument in achieving the various economic, social and political objectives of the... more

Brömmelhörster, J., & Frankenstein, J. (Eds.). (1996). Mixed motives, uncertain outcomes - Defense conversion in China. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.

This volume is ...the definitive statement on the progress of the [Chinese] defense industry to date. It is a fascinating antidote to the analysis offered by those who too naively accept the official COSTIND interpretation of the industry's progress or capabilities. The chapters...cover nearly... more

Kingma, K., & Sayers, V. (1995, May). Demobilization in the Horn of Africa: Proceedings of the IRG Workshop, Addis Ababa, 4-7 December 1994 (Brief series No. 4). Bonn: BICC.

BICC brief 4 “Demobilization in the Horn of Africa” is about a workshop on Demobilization and Reintegration in the Horn of Africa was organized by the International Resource Group on Disarmament and Security in the Horn of Africa (IRG), in cooperation with the Ad Hoc Committee for Peace and... more