Order and change

Results: 499

Owino, E., Mkutu, K., & Enns, C. (2023). Large Infrastructure Projects and Cascading Land Grabs . In A. Neef, C. Ngin, T. Moreda, & S. Mollett (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Global Land and Resource Grabbing (pp. 345-357). London: Routledge.

From around the beginning of the current millennium, East Africa has been experiencing a wave of large-scale infrastructure expansion. Moreover, in anticipation of the new and improved market linkages that major infrastructure projects promise to bring, a rush to grab land alongside new and... more

Wilshusen, F. (2023). When the 'War Attitude' persists: How Pro-Government Militias affect Society in the Long Run Bonn: BICC.

Resorting to so-called pro-government militias (PGMs) in the face of severely challenged state forces is a timeless phenomenon in government politics across the globe. However, providing military training and distributing weapons to civilians can represent a security risk—in the short and the long... more

Etzold, B., & Müller-Koné, M. (2023). Boundary-Making in a Contested Space. Food Security and Conflict Dynamics in Marsabit, Kenya Bonn: BICC.

This study reports on the results of a pilot study on food security and conflict dynamics in northern Kenya conducted by BICC in collaboration with Caritas Germany and its Kenyan partners Caritas Marsabit and PACIDA in 2022. The objectives were to identify the interrelationships between food... more

Vollmer, R. (2023). ‘For a Better Life’? The Role of Networks in Social (Im)Mobility after Return to Albania. Central and Eastern European Migration and Review , 1-17.

This article addresses the question of what influences the opportunities for social mobility in the context of return migration to Albania from a meso-level perspective. It applies a network-theory-based analysis to 104 qualitative interviews with a diverse sample of returned migrants, conducted in... more

Mielke, K. (2023). On Peace Activists and Skilled Survivors. Afghan Exiles and Transnational History-Making from Below. Iran and the Caucasus, 1(27), 105-123.

This article examines multiple entanglements of Afghan exiles’ biographies in West Germany with Cold War- and contemporary history. The life stories of six men who have been residing in Germany since the 1970s but were physically and cognitively highly mobile in their engagement for change in... more

Şahin-Mencütek, Z., Gökalp Aras, N., Kaya, A., & Rottmann, S. B. (2023). Syrian Refugees in Turkey. Between Reception and Integration.: Springer Cham.

This open access book provides a comprehensive analysis of Turkey’s response to Syrian mass migration from 2011 to 2020. It examines internal and external dimensions of the refugee issue in relation to Middle Eastern geopolitics as well as the salience of controlling irregular migration to the... more

Şahin-Mencütek, Z. (2023). The Role of Return Preparedness, Assistance and Networks in Returnees’ Reintegration in Origin Countries (Synthesis Report) (BICC Working Paper series No. /2023). Bonn: BICC.

Across the destination countries of migration, i.e. migrant-receiving countries, in Europe there has been an increasing emphasis on return and reintegration programmes. These programmes particularly target rejected asylum-seekers forced to return, irregular migrants unable to legalise their stay in... more

Mielke, K. (2023). Finding One's Place in Chaos. Returnees' Reintegration Experiences in Northern Iraq (BICC Working Paper series No. 2/2023). Bonn: BICC.

Migration in northern Iraq is a product of global, postcolonial processes driven by highly unequal international relations of global capitalism and geopolitics. With a focus on ‘reintegration’ experiences of returnees to northern Iraq who have left abroad over the last four decades and returned... more

Schmitz-Pranghe, C. (2023). The The Role of Mobility, Networks and Reintegration Assistance after Return. Insights from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia (BICC Working Paper series No. 1/2023). Bonn: BICC.

This Working Paper investigates the (re-)integration trajectories of returnees to the two Western Balkan countries Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. By applying a multidimensional and processual understanding of (re-)integration, it scrutinises how returnees' positionality as well as local context... more

Rudolf, M. (2023). Ostafrika - Migration und Flucht. In M. Berlinghoff, B. Glorius, J. Kleist, & T. Scharrer (Eds.), Flucht- und Flüchtlingsforschung - Handbuch für Wissenschaft und Studium (pp. forthcoming). Baden-Baden: Nomos.

Since 2015, research on flight and refugees has experienced a boom in the German-speaking regions. This handbook opens up the field in its breadth and at the same time critically reflects on the state of research. Part I of the volume discusses the historical development of the research field, its... more

Cermeño, H., & Mielke, K. (2023). Endangered Urban Commons: Lahore’s Violent Heritage Management and Prospects for Reconciliation. Urban Planning, 8(1), .

  The debate on urban commons yields relevance for shared histories and heritage in divided and post-conflict societies. Albeit memory is always subjective, heritage management tends to engender a linear view of the past that suggests a preconceived future development. Where the past is... more

Navarro, R., Wirkus, L., & Dubovyk, O. (2023). Spatio-Temporal Assessment of Olive Orchard Intensification in the Saïss Plain (Morocco) Using k-Means and High-Resolution Satellite Data. Remote Sensing, 15(1), 1-24.

Olive orchard intensification has transformed an originally drought-resilient tree crop into a competing water user in semi-arid regions. In our study, we used remote sensing to evaluate whether intensive olive plantations have increased between 2010 and 2020, contributing to the current risk of... more

Şahin-Mencütek, Z., & Tsourapas, G. (2022). When Do States Repatriate Refugees? Evidence from the Middle East. Journal of Global Security Studies, 8(1), .

Which conditions affect whether a state will choose to repatriate forcibly displaced populations residing within its borders? One of the most pressing issues related to the protracted Syrian refugee situation concerns the future of over 5 million Syrians who sought shelter in neighboring states.... more

Schetter, C. (2022). Who are ‘the’ Taliban? Life Worlds between Pashtun Traditions, Islamism, and Globalisation. Ethnoscripts , 24(1), 62-80 Hamburg: Universität Hamburg.

The article deals with the social background and the life worlds of the followers of the Taliban movement. It begins with an analysis of the essential social structures of Pashtun tribal society. It argues that both the Afghan wars, which are ongoing since 1979, and the consequent mass exodus had a... more

Schetter, C. (2022). Wer ‚die‘ Taliban sind: Lebenswelten zwischen paschtunischen Traditionen, militantem Islamismus und Globalisierung. Ethnoscripts, 24(1), 62-80 Hamburg: Universität Hamburg.

This article deals with the social background and the life worlds of the followers of the Taliban movement. It begins with an analysis of the essential social structures of Pashtun tribal society. It argues that both the Afghan wars, which are ongoing since 1979, and the consequent mass... more

BICC (Ed.). (2022). Annual Report 2022. Bonn: BICC.

The Annual Report 2022 presents empirical research conducted by BICC (Bonn International Centre for Conflict Studies) in regions characterised by violent conflict and its aftermath, forced migration dynamics and arms proliferation. Besides Ukraine, these include Afghanistan, Yemen or the Sahel. The... more

Kayaoglu, A., Şahin-Mencütek, Z., & Chang, C.-A. (2022). Challenges and Resilience Strategies of Urban Refugee Entrepreneurs, Economic Research Forum, Working Paper No. 1601.

Refugee entrepreneurship is key to promoting self-reliance and resilience among refugees. It ensures a smoother transition from humanitarian to development programs, so it is considered mutually beneficial for the refugees, their hosts, and the overall humanitarian-development aid sector. Its... more

Dincer, O. (2022). The legacy of the Arab uprisings on Turkey’s foreign policy: Ankara’s regional power delusion. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, DOI: 10.1080/09557571.2022.2145180.

In the aftermath of the Arab upheavals, Turkey pursued an overambitious regional leadership agenda that appeared incompatible with its underlying capabilities. In retrospect, there was sufficient evidence in the wake of the Arab upheavals that Turkey’s power capacity did not match the assertive... more

Rudolf, M. (2022). Talking at Cross-Purposes? On Ambigous Relationships between International Policies on Return and Reintegration and their local Conceptualisations in Ghana, the Gambia and Senegal (BICC Working Paper series No. 1/2022). Bonn: BICC.

This Working Paper explores and compares return to and reintegration in Ghana, the Gambia and Senegal while setting different positionalities of migrants against migration and return regimes and broader socio-economic inequalities. The Paper first highlights the trajectories and motivations of... more

Rudolf, M. (2022). Classified integration – Urban displaced persons in Dar es Salaam. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 4905-4921.

The strict encampment policy enforced by Tanzanian authorities in the last years made it harder for displaced persons to settle outside camps. The article showcases possible impacts of policy changes on the legal, social and economic position of once relatively well-integrated urban refugees. Many... more

Mkutu Agade, K., Anderson, D., Lugusa, K., & Owino, E. (2022). Water Governance, Institutions and Conflicts in the Maasai Rangelands. The Journal of Environment & Development, 1-26.

Water scarcity in Narok county, Kenya may be attributed to demographic pressures, land-use changes, environmental degradation and the effects of climate change. This article combines methodologies from history and political science to investigate how local communities cope with water scarcity. In... more

Mielke, K., & Etzold, B. (2022). Afghans’ narrowing mobility options in Pakistan and the right to transnational living: a figurational perspective. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 4347-4364 .

Different types of low-scale mobility have traditionally aided Afghans in Pakistan to cope with the challenges of everyday life during forty years of displacement: cross-border and domestic movement, resource usage from assets ‘back home’, transnational networks, and circular migration conditioned... more

Christ, S., & Etzold, B. (2022). Family figurations in displacement: Entangled mobilities of refugees towards Germany and beyond. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies., 4419–4435.

Refugees rarely flee in isolation. Instead, their everyday lives and mobilities are fundamentally shaped by the broader set of social relations in which they are embedded, particularly by their families. Drawing on interviews with sixty displaced people living in Germany and in-depth case studies... more

Etzold, B., & Fechter, A.-M. (2022). Unsettling protracted displacement: connectivity and mobility beyond ‘Limbo’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 4295-4312.

Conventional understandings of protracted displacement are limited by a number of shortcomings. They imply the stasis of protracted situations; the passivity and disconnection of vulnerable groups who need external support; and immobility of people ‘stuck’ in places. Moreover, solutions to... more

Adugna, F., & Rudolf, M. (2022). A matter of time and contacts: trans-local networks and long-term mobility of Eritrean refugees. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2022.2090155.

Eritreans have experienced protracted conflict and displacement over the last half a century. Aside from marginalisation, immobilisation, highly constrained livelihood options and legal limbo, this has also created a complex and dynamic web of transnational networks of Eritrean refugees and... more

Wilshusen, F. (2022). Today’s solution, tomorrow’s problem? An analysis of West African practices in the use of pro-government militias. Bonn: BICC.

In this Paper, I address the question of whether and under what circumstances the deployment of pro-government militias (PGMs) can reduce violence against civilians, specifically in the Sahel. My analysis— based on a literature review and case studies on Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Mali, Niger, and... more

Dincer, O. (2022). Citizenship Practices in Syria Before the Arab Uprisings: The Legacy of ‘Concentric’ Citizenship. Politics, Religion & Ideology, 23(2), 158-176.

By focusing on the two Assads’ periods (1971-2011), this study traces the evolution of the nature of the relationship between the state and its citizen(s) in Syria to explain the sources and complex dynamics of the protracted conflict. It aims to promote new approaches to peace and reconstruction... more

Lorenz, R., & Etzold, B. (2022). Journeys of Violence: Trajectories of (Im-)Mobility and Migrants’ Encounters with Violence in European Border Spaces. Comparative Population Studies, 47, 211-232.

On their journeys to and through Europe, refugees and other migrants are commonly subjected to violence in its multifaceted forms. We argue that these “journeys of violence” are a direct effect of a fundamentally uneven and asymmetric global mobility regime that creates frictions and fragmentations... more

Şahin-Mencütek, Z. (2022). The Geopolitics of Returns: Geopolitical Reasoning and Space-Making in Turkey’s Repatriation Regime. Geopolitics, 27 (3), 1-27.

Despite growing interest in the return of rejected asylum seekers, irregular migrants, and refugees, we do not know enough about how geopolitics affects returns governance. This article addresses this knowledge gap by analysing the case of Turkey, exploring how positions in the global migration... more

Şahin-Mencütek, Z. (2022). The Institutionalization of “Voluntary” Returns in Turkey. Migration and Society: Advances in Research, 5, 43–58.

The increasing salience and variations of “voluntary” return techniques have not yet been thoroughly investigated in the context of Global South countries, which host the majority of displaced people. As the largest refugee host and transit country, the case of Turkey provides important insights on... more

Rudolf, M. (2022). For Us, Women are Sacred: Gender and conflict in the Casamance. Cadernos de Estudos Africanos, 42, 147-172.

The paper examines the changes of gender relations and power inequalities in a context of nearly forty years intermittent war. It shows that gender roles have been both changing and consolidating during the conflict. Furthermore, analysis reveals a multipolar instead of a bipolar local... more

Kemmerling, B., Schetter, C., & Wirkus, L. (2022). The logics of war and food (in)security. Global Food Security, 33, 100634.

Many of today's food crises are linked to war and violent conflicts. This paper elaborates four logics of war that have an impact on food insecurity: a) destruction; b) conflict-induced displacement; c) food control; d) hunger as a “weapon of war”. These logics explain why governments or... more

Serra Mingot, E., & Rudolf, M. (2022). On the Same Wavelength? Differing Geopolitical Positionalities and Voluntary Return and Reintegration in Ghana. Journal of International Migration and Integration , DOI: 10.1007/s12134-022-00958-x.

This paper explores the range of experiences of “voluntary” return to Ghana, based on the different positionalities of migrants set against migration and return regimes and broader socio-economic inequalities. The cases illustrate how geopolitical relations shape migrants’ mobilities,... more

Etzold, B., Wagner, M., & Katsiaficas, C. (2022). People First – New Solutions to the Challenge of Displacement: Think7.

More than 82 million people – equal to the population of Germany – are forcibly displaced across the globe. An increasing number of refugees and internally displaced persons are living in long-term situations of vulnerability, dependency, and legal insecurity. This is despite the fact that every... more

Şahin-Mencütek, Z., Barthoma, S., Gökalp Aras, N., & Triandafyllidou, A. (2022). A crisis mode in migration governance: comparative and analytical insights. Comparative Migration Studies, 10, 1-19.

This paper takes stock of the emerging literature on the governance and framing of both migration and asylum as ‘crises’. This study carries forward this line of thinking by showing how the crisis governance of migration is not just a representation or a discourse but emerges as a mode of... more

El-Bialy, N., Aranda, E., Nicklisch, A., Saleh, L., & Voigt, S. (2022). To cooperate or not to cooperate? An analysis of cooperation and peer punishment among Syrian refugees, Germans, and Jordanians. Journal of Economic Psychology, 89, 1-17.

Do Syrian civil war victims living in exile treat other Syrian refugees more favorably compared to members of the hosting society? We answer this question by analyzing cooperation decisions in a prisoner’s dilemma with a second stage including punishment among Syrian refugees, Germans, and... more

Christ, S., Isikozlu, E., & Etzold, B. (2022). Following their lead: Transnational connectivity and mobility along family figurations in displacement (TRAFIG practice note no. 10). Bonn: BICC.

Transnational lives are not the exception but rather a reality of displaced peoples’ everyday lives. This became obvious in our research with refugees in Germany, in which we used a figurational approach to better understand their situation and how they overcome protracted displacement. By... more

Christ, S., Etzold, B., Güzelant, G., Puers, M., Steffens, D., Themann, P., & Thiem, M. (2022). Figurations of Displacement in and beyond Germany - Empirical findings and reflections on mobility and translocal connections of refugees living in Germany (TRAFIG working paper no. 10). Bonn: BICC.

TRAFIG working paper no. 10 presents the findings of the empirical research on the role of connectivity and mobility for displaced people in Germany in the framework of the TRAFIG project. The findings are based on qualitative fieldwork in Germany, with 73 qualitative interviews with displaced ... more

Katsiaficas, C., Wagner, M., Pastore, F., Hatziprokopiou, P., Etzold, B., & Kraler, A. (2022). Moving on: How easing mobility restrictions within Europe can help forced migrants rebuild their lives (TRAFIG Policy Brief No. 6) Bonn: BICC.

Free movement within the Schengen area is a cornerstone of European integration – and indeed an essential part of the European way of life. However, this freedom of movement is limited for forcibly displaced people residing within the European Union (EU). European asylum systems are designed to... more

Mkutu, K., Müller-Koné, M., & Owino, E. (2021). Future visions, present conflicts: the ethnicized politics of anticipation surrounding an infrastructure corridor in northern Kenya. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 15(4), 707-727.

This work analyses the politics of anticipation and ensuing fears, tensions and conflicts in relation to Kenya’s Lamu Port-South Sudan-Ethiopia Transport (LAPSSET) Corridor which is to pass through several previously marginalized counties in the north of the country. Isiolo county, in the centre... more

Kalvelage, L., Bollig, M., Grawert, E., Hulke, C., Meyer, R., Mkutu, K., Müller-Koné, M., & Diez, J. (2021). Territorialising Conservation: Community-based Approaches in Kenya and Namibia. Conservation & Society, 19(4), 282-294.

Community-based Conservation seeks to strike a balance between nature conservation and economic growth by establishing spatial and institutional settings that maintain and even regain biodiversity while simultaneously allowing for sustainable land use. The implementation of community-based... more

Hatziprokopiou, P., Isikozlu, E., Papatzani, E., & Pastore, F. (2021). Resolving the ‘mobility paradox’: Lessons from southern Europe (TRAFIG Practice Note No. 9) Bonn: BICC.

Protracted displacement exists in the European Union. TRAFIG research shows that many forced migrants in Italy and Greece live on the margins of society without hope for or the prospect of change. Their only way out is to go on the move. Mobility is their strategy to connect to social networks and... more

Gökalp Aras, N., Papatzani, E., Şahin-Mencütek, Z., Leivaditi, N., & Petracou, E. (2021). Governance of Refugee Protection: Challenges in Europe and Beyond. In S. Barthoma, & A. O. Cetrez (Eds.), RESPONDing to Migration. A Holistic Perspective on Migration Governance (pp. 123-146). Uppsala: Uppsala University.

What’s past’, as the famous line in Shakespeare’s The Tempest has it, ‘is prologue’. Just as this edited volume is being compiled in 2021—some six years after the 2015 refugee emergency—developments in Afghanistan and the Polish–Belarus border appear once again to be leading to a new migration... more

Kaya, A., Rottmann, S. B., Gökalp Aras, N., & Şahin-Mencütek, Z. (2021). Turkey: Border Management, Protection, Reception, and Integration of Refugees. In S. Barthoma, & A. O. Cetrez (Eds.), RESPONDing to Migration: A Holistic Perspective on Migration Governance (pp. 187-208). Uppsala: Uppsala University.

What’s past’, as the famous line in Shakespeare’s The Tempest has it, ‘is prologue’. Just as this edited volume is being compiled in 2021—some six years after the 2015 refugee emergency—developments in Afghanistan and the Polish–Belarus border appear once again to be leading to a new migration... more

BICC (Ed.). (2021). Annual Report 2021. Bonn: BICC.

As of 15 September 2021, BICC's new name is Bonn International Centre for Conflict Studies. Against this background, the Annual Report 2021 depicts the advances of the peace and conflict research institute and its growing expertise in research and policy advice.  This Annual Report 2021... more

Kleffmann, J. (2021). Addressing illicit trafficking through a crime convergence lens: Towards a model for cross-border cooperation in Africa (BICC Knowledge Notes series No. 1/2021). Bonn: BICC.

Scholars and practitioners alike have found illicit cross-border flows—from drugs to wildlife and weapons—to converge and reinforce each other while often being embedded in large transnational criminal networks. However, practitioners still lack the tools and guidance to effectively combat these... more

Mkutu, K. (2021). Anticipation, participation and contestation along the LAPSSET Infrastructure Corridor in Kenya (BICC Working Paper series No. 4/2021). Bonn: BICC.

Pastoral counties in northern Kenya are expected to undergo massive social–ecological change ­in the coming years as a result of the government’s ‘Vision 2030’ with its large-scale investments ­and infrastructure projects. The Lamu Port–South Sudan–Ethiopia Transport (LAPSSET) corridor ­project is... more

Wilson, C., Msallam, B., Kabyemela, J., Demirdirek, M., Sanga, J., & Ruhundwa, J. (2021). Figurations of Displacement in and beyond Tanzania: Reflections on protracted displacement and translocal connections of Congolese and Burundian refugees in Dar es Salaam (TRAFIG working paper no. 8). Bonn: BICC.

This working paper investigates the livelihoods, trajectories, networks and self-generated opportunities of vulnerable migrants in refugee-like situations in Dar es Salaam. Its main purpose is to arrive at a deeper understanding of protracted displacement through a ‘figurational approach’,... more

Ruhundwa, J., Msallam, B., Isikozlu, E., & Wilson, C. (2021). Local connections for local solutions: Lessons learned in Tanzania (TRAFIG practice note 8).

Dar es Salaam is Tanzania’s largest city with a population of around 6.7 million people. Amongst them are approximately ten thousand vulnerable migrants who find themselves in refugee-like situations. Most of these vulnerable migrants are forced to live ‘underground’ because they do not have a... more

Meininghaus, E., & Schlüsing, C. (2021). Translocality in War: Why Does it Matter? London: London School of Economics Middle East Blog.

In their blog post, the authors argue that translocality as a concept allows us to shed new light on a twofold process: how armed groups anchor themselves in and across local communities. This aspect matters for the communities and because understanding the translocal dimension... more

Katsiaficas, C., Wagner, M., Mielke, K., Tobin, S. A., Momani, F. A., Al Yakoub, T., & Javed, M. M. (2021). Outward and upward mobility. How Afghan and Syrian refugees can use mobility to improve their prospects (TRAFIG Policy Brief No. 5) Bonn: BICC.

Jordan and Pakistan are among the countries that host the most refugees worldwide—refugees who come from countries facing protracted conflicts with no end in sight. TRAFIG research at multiple sites in Jordan and urban Pakistan (conducted before the Taliban takeover of... more

Schetter, C., & Trautner, B. (2021). Commentary \ Cooperation with the Taliban? Promoting civil society engagement in Afghanistan Bonn: BICC.

In addition to addressing the extent and cause of the debacle in Afghanistan, the new German Government must urgently consider how to set a new course to prevent further destabilisation of the country. In their commentary, Conrad Schetter (BICC) and Bernhard Trautner (DIE) emphasise that the... more

Mielke, K., Shahid, N., Khatana, A. R., Ahmad, Z., Irshad, A., Kiran, S., Etzold, B., Asghari, S., & Javed, M. M. (2021). Figurations of Displacement in and beyond Pakistan. Empirical findings and reflections on protracted displacement and translocal connections of Afghans (TRAFIG Working Paper No. 7) Bonn: BICC.

Pakistan currently hosts up to three million Afghans, a number that is likely to increase due to the Taliban's recent return to power in Afghanistan. This working paper is based on empirical research on the experience of Afghan displacement in Pakistan from 2019 until early 2021 as part of the... more

Isikozlu, E., Mielke, K., & Javed, M. M. (2021). Now more than ever: Afghans in Pakistan need more mobility and durable solutions to stay (TRAFIG Practice Note No. 7) Bonn: BICC.

The Taliban’s recent seizure of Kabul and overall control of the country has once again led many Afghans to flee their country. With more than 2.67 million Afghans registered as refugees worldwide (as of 2020), and possibly more to come, Afghans are the second-largest refugee population after... more

Katsiaficas, C., & Wagner, M. (2021). Networks and mobility: A case for complementary pathways (TRAFIG policy brief 3). Bonn: BICC.

Complementary pathways have gained much prominence in recent global and European policy discussions as an innovative and new tool to broaden and scale up third-country solutions for refugees. Indeed, the need for ramping up access to durable solutions for refugees is pressing in the face of ever... more

Meininghaus, E., & Mielke, K. (2021, April). Meaningful political participation. Lessons learnt from UN mediation in Afghanistan and Syria (BICC Policy Brief series No. 3/2021). Bonn: BICC.

In this Policy Brief, the authors present lessons learnt and subsequent policy implications from an in-depth analysis of the UN peace processes on Afghanistan and Syria. The authors argue that in both processes, the ability of peace process participants who come from Afghanistan and Syria to... more

Isikozlu, E., Tufa, F., & Rudolf, M. (2021). Supporting self-reliance for local integration: Eritrean refugees in Ethiopia (TRAFIG Practice Note No. 5) Bonn: BICC.

Many Eritrean refugees who live in camps in Ethiopia have no translocal or transnational connections. This means they have little opportunity to move onward from the camp and resettle elsewhere. However, many of them have strong connections with the host community, and even the most vulnerable... more

Isikozlu, E., Rudolf, M., & Tufa, F. (2021). Supporting self-reliance for local integration: Eritrean refugees in Ethiopia (TRAFIG Practice Note No. 5) Bonn: BICC.

Many Eritrean refugees who live in camps in Ethiopia have no translocal or transnational connections. This means they have little opportunity to move onward from the camp and resettle elsewhere. However, many of them have strong connections with the host community, and even the most vulnerable... more

Isikozlu, E., Tobin, S. A., & Momani, F. A. (2021). Out-of-camp but not out of mind: Supporting Syrian refugees in Jordan’s cities (TRAFIG Practice Note No. 6) Bonn: BICC.

The Syrian displacement crisis is entering its tenth year. Over one million Syrians have settled in Jordan, the majority of whom live in urban and peri-urban areas, others in Zaatari and Azraq refugee camps. A lot of attention has gone to the challenges faced by in-camp refugees, but those based... more

Mielke, K., & Meininghaus, E. (2021, March). Engaging refugees and migrants as peace advocates. How Germany can contribute to peace in Syria and Afghanistan (BICC Policy Brief series No. 2/2021). Bonn: BICC.

Today, Afghans and Syrians constitute the highest numbers of immigrants in Germany and Europe. In this Policy Brief, the authors argue that policy must recognise the significant potential of Afghan and Syrian refugees and migrants in Germany and beyond as peace advocates and change agents in... more

Tobin, S. A., Knudsen, A., Momani, F. A., Al Yakoub, T., & Al Jarrah, R. (2021). Figurations of Displacement in Jordan and beyond: Empirical findings and reflections on protracted displacement and translocal connections of Syrian refugees (TRAFIG working paper 6). Bonn: BICC

This working paper is based on the empirical research on translocal figurations of displacement of Syrians in Jordan. It contains methodological discussions, central findings and reflections on these findings. Drawing on the conceptual framework of the TRAFIG project, this paper explores the... more

Katsiaficas, C., Jacobs, C., & Wagner, M. (2021). ou can Leveraging networks to overcome displacement. Urban internally displaced persons in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (TRAFIG policy brief 2). Bonn: BICC.

In the quest for sustainable solutions to record global displacement, promoting displaced persons’ self-reliance and supporting them alongside host communities in regions of displacement have become buzzwords in global and European policy discussions. But despite such pledges, TRAFIG research in... more

Isikozlu, E., & Jacobs, C. (2020). Bolstering resilient connections in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (TRAFIG Practice Note No. 4) Bonn: BICC.

Due to prolonged conflict, millions of people in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) have fled their homes to seek refuge elsewhere, especially in the east of the country. The majority of these Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) flee to cities and other local communities rather than to... more

Schmitz-Pranghe, C., Oruč, N., Mielke, K., & Ibričević, A. (2020, December). Making sure that the emigration of health-care personnel from Albania and BiH works for all: What Germany can do (BICC Policy Brief series No. 8/2020). Bonn: BICC.

The labour market for healthcare workers is one of the largest occupational markets worldwide with a comparatively high scale of public investments in human capital. Despite the already tangible ‘care crisis’, Germany and other European countries train healthcare workers below their actual demand... more

BICC (Ed.). (2020). Annual Report 2020. Bonn: BICC.

Restricted by the pandemic, BICC staff still continued their empirical research in regions characterised by forced displacement, volatile, violent conflicts and arms proliferation. BICC’s Annual Report illustrates the unique expertise of BICC: Research and policy advice that put the perspective of... more

Grawert, E., Mielke, K., Pleisnitzer, S., Markiewicz, S., Rifat, A., & Abdou, A. M. (2020). Reintegration in northern Iraq: The time is now for Europe to act (BICC Policy Brief series No. 7/2020). Bonn: BICC.

This Policy Brief, written in cooperation with Malteser International, is based on an assessment of the current living conditions in northern Iraq (in the understanding to include the Kurdistan Region of Iraq with the provinces of Erbil, Dohuk and Sulaymaniyah as well as the disputed territories... more

Jacobs, C., Assumani, I., Katembera, R., Lubala Kubiha, S., Milabyo Kyamusugulwa, P., & Ruhamya Mugenzi, J. (2020). Figurations of Displacement in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Empirical findings and reflections on protracted displacement and translocal connections of Congolese IDPs (TRAFIG working paper 4). Bonn: BICC.

This working paper is based on empirical research on translocal figurations of displacement in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). It contains methodological reflections, central findings, and reflections on these findings. Drawing on the conceptual framework that was developed in... more

Rudolf, M., & Serra Mingot, E. (2020, September). Making it work. AVRR programmes and Ghanaian returnees (BICC Policy Brief series No. 5/2020). Bonn: BICC.

External researchers have criticised existing self-monitoring measures of national and European AVRR programmes for neglecting reintegration and focusing on means to ensure that rejected asylum seekers and undocumented migrants leave the national territory, regardless of what happens next. This... more

Isikozlu, E., Mielke, K., & Javed, M. M. (2020). Now more than ever: Afghans in Pakistan need more mobility and durable solutions to stay (TRAFIG practice note 7). Bonn: BICC.

The Taliban’s recent seizure of Kabul and overall control of the country has once again led many Afghans to flee their country. With more than 2.67 million Afghans registered as refugees worldwide (as of 2020), and possibly more to come, Afghans are the second-largest refugee population after... more

Serra Mingot, E. (2020, July). Improving the social protection needs of asylum seekers and refugees. Learning from the experiences of displaced Sudanese in the Netherlands (BICC Policy Brief series No. 3/2020). Bonn: BICC.

This Policy Brief shows not only the contradictory manner in which Western governments have dealt with demands of control, low costs and humanitarian approaches but also the negative consequences this has for the asylum seekers and refugees, their families and the receiving state. Based on the... more

Mkutu, K. (2020, June). Security dynamics in conservancies in Kenya: The case of Isiolo County (BICC Working Paper series No. 3/2020). Bonn: BICC.

The community-based conservation model is an increasing phenomenon in Kenya, especially in northern pastoralist counties. In BICC Working Paper 3\2020 the author Kennedy Mkutu considers dimensions of inclusion and exclusion and subsequent conflicts around community based conservancies in Isiolo... more

Döring, M., Neitzert, A., Röing, T., & von Boemcken, M. (2020, June). Prävention extremistischer Radikalisierung in NRW: Keine Vereinnahmung Sozialer Arbeit durch Sicherheitslogik! (BICC Policy Brief series No. 2/2020). Bonn: BICC.

The recommendations in this Policy Brief are based on the results of the research project "Prevention of Radicalisation in North Rhine-Westphalia - How can the capacities of intermediaries be strengthened? Between January and October 2019, the team of authors conducted semi-structured... more

Döring, M., Röing, T., & von Boemcken, M. (2020, June). "Prävention ist keine 'Eintagsfliege'". Herausforderungen und Bedarfe der Prävention islamistischer Radikalisierung aus lokaler Perspektive in Nordrhein-Westfalen (BICC Working Paper series No. 2/2020). Bonn: BICC.

Prevention against Islamist radicalisation is still an important policy field in North Rhine-Westphalia. But what is the current state of affairs from the perspective of those who work in prevention locally? Where do local advisors on prevention, teachers, social workers, representatives of local... more

Christ, S., Meininghaus, E., Mielke, K., & Röing, T. (Eds.). (2020, May). Refugees and migrants between everyday conflict and peace processes. Conference documentation (BICC Knowledge Notes series No. 1/2020). Bonn: BICC.

How do refugees and migrants in Germany deal with conflicts in their daily lives? And how do they do so in their country of origin by engaging in peace processes? This Knowledge Note provides key insights into our BICC conference on  “Refugees and migrants between everyday conflict and peace... more

Rudolf, M., Schetter, C., & Schmitz-Pranghe, C. (2020, April). "Leaving them behind" - Global trends in forced migration (BICC Policy Brief series No. 1/2020). Bonn: BICC.

In 2030, the envisaged year of the accomplishment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), millions and millions of displaced people will still be living under precarious conditions. It is already clear that the SDGs’guiding principle “leaving no one behind” cannot be fulfilled; forced... more

Wulf, H. (2020). Commentary \ Exhausts to respirators? Experiences in the conversion of production sites help to avoid misleading simplifications Bonn: BICC.

In the coronavirus crisis, bottlenecks in urgently needed protective equipment are leading to the perception that the conversion of production sites is a “quick and pragmatic” solution. In his commentary, Professor Herbert Wulf, founding director of the peace and conflict research institute BICC... more

Etzold, B., Pastore, F., Roman, E., Hatziprokopiou, P., Papatzani, E., & Kraler, A. (2020). Kommentar \ EU am Scheideweg: „Europa vor Flüchtlingen abschirmen“ oder „Geflüchtete schützen“? Bonn: BICC.

In light of the coronavirus-crisis, European refugee policy is currently receding into the background.  But the situation of refugees at the EU's external borders, on the islands of the Aegean Sea and elsewhere on the periphery of Europe is deteriorating rapidly, aggravated by the global... more

Rudolf, M. (2020, March). Immobilisation, restricted spatial mobility and displacement in violent conflict (BICC Working Paper series No. 1/2020). Bonn: BICC.

Putting the humanitarian–development nexus into practice, aid organisations and donors pay most attention to camp populations in protracted refugee situations (PRS). In BICC Working Paper 1\2020 the author Markus Rudolf argues that synergies arise when development aid redefines and expands the area... more

Ferreira, N., Jacobs, C., Kea, P., Noack, M., Hendow, M., Wagner, M., Tufa, F., Alodat, A., Ayalew, T., Etzold, B., Fogli, C., Goumenos, T., Hatziprokopiou, P., Javed, M. M., Kamanga, K., Kraler, A., Momani, F. A., & Roman, E. (2020). Governing protracted displacement: An analysis across global, regional and domestic contexts (TRAFIG working paper 3). Bonn: BICC.

This working paper explores the governance of protracted displacement across global, regional and domestic levels in the context of the project “Transnational Figurations of Displacement” (TRAFIG). The multiple contemporary crises that have led to forced displacement show not only the limits of a... more

Kea, P. (2020). Bridging the gaps: Governance of protracted displacement across global, regional and national levels (TRAFIG practice note 3). Bonn: BICC.

The current institutional and governance system of displacement has become much more complex with the inclusion of ever more actors. But it still leaves open multiple gaps of protection. To close these protection gaps and to more effectively address protracted displacement, it requires a better... more

Noack, M., Wagner, M., & Jacobs, C. (2020). Governing protracted displacement. What access to solutions for forcibly displaced people? (TRAFIG policy brief 1). Bonn: BICC.

The governance of displacement and access to protection are closely linked to solutions for displaced people that refer to both the capability of displaced persons to rebuild their lives after displacement and the opportunities available to do so. Current policies to address displacement follow the... more

Meininghaus, E., & Mielke, K. (2019, December). Beyond Doha and Geneva: Peacemaking engagement of Afghans and Syrians in North Rhine-Westphalia and Germany (BICC Working Paper series No. 11/2019). Bonn: BICC.

For several decades now, Germany has become home to significant numbers of Afghans, and more recently Syrians, who have fled war. In this Working Paper, the authors Esther Meininghaus and Katja Mielke analyse the political engagement for peace by Afghans and Syrians in Germany since the beginning... more

Vollmer, R. (2019, November). Agency and livelihood-making in protracted displacement: Key insights and recommendations for development cooperation — Synthesis report of the research project "Protected rather than protracted" (BICC Working Paper series No. 10/2019). Bonn: BICC.

As synthesis report of the research project "Protected rather than protracted" BICC Working Paper 10\2019 provides key insights and recommendations for development cooperation. The project’s approach of analysing protracted displacement through the perspectives and experiences of the... more

Vollmer, R. (2019, October). Overcoming protracted displacement: Criteria for development programmes in protracted displacement (BICC Policy Brief series No. 9/2019). Bonn: BICC.

In BICC Policy Brief 9\2019 the author Ruth Vollmer gives the following recommendations: \ Make people’s agency the starting point of livelihood support The support provided to people in protracted displacement by development actors needs to be  based on a thorough understanding of their... more

Rudolf, M. (2019, October). Conceptualising crisis, refugees and IDPs: Insights from northern Iraq on vulnerabilities and needs caused by displacement (BICC Working Paper series No. 9/2019). Bonn: BICC.

This Working Paper assesses how humanitarian and development aid agencies address   individuals whose human rights and human dignity have been affected by displacement. It proposes a fresh look at how to measure needs that arise in such situations. To this end, the  Paper evaluates... more

BICC (Ed.). (2019). Annual Report 2019. Bonn: BICC.

Since its foundation in 1994, BICC (Bonn International Center for Conversion) has developed into one of the leading institutes for peace and conflict research in Europe. BICC’s Annual Report illustrates: The unique scientific expertise of the Center derives from the empirical insights that its... more

Grawert, E. (2019, September). Between reconciliation, resignation and revenge: (Re-)integration of refugees, internally displaced people and ex-combatants in Sierra Leone in a long-term perspective (BICC Working Paper series No. 8/2019). Bonn: BICC.

Sierra Leone is known for the successful reintegration of a high number of returning refugees  and internally displaced people (IDPs), many of whom had stayed in protracted displacement   situations during the eleven years of a most cruel internal war. The war was intertwined with... more

Rudolf, M. (2019, September). Organised crime as a cause of forced displacement. Lessons learned from Latin America (BICC Policy Brief series No. 7/2019). Bonn: BICC.

In Colombia, the peace agreement of 2016 ended the armed fighting between the government and the guerilla group FARC (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia). Nevertheless, some regions experienced an increase in organised crime and associated violent displacement after the agreement was... more

Mkutu, K. (2019, August). Pastoralists, politics and development projects. Unterstanding the layers of armed conflict in Isiolo county, Kenya (BICC Working Paper series No. 7/2019). Bonn: BICC.

Pastoral counties of northern Kenya are expected to undergo massive change in the  coming years due to the government’s ambitious infrastructural development agenda.  However, the area frequently experiences violence as a result of conflict between pastoralist communities, and also due to... more

von Boemcken, M. (2019). Smooth security. Creative adaptation, mimicry and deception in everyday securityscapes. Critical Studies on Security, 7(2), 91-106.

Please find the article here. The article traces the everyday securityscapes of marginalized groups in Kyrgyzstan. It finds that they are as much about the crossing as the drawing of boundaries. To seek security is to become invisible, deceive, withdraw, seize momentary opportunities and... more

Röing, T. (2019, July). On handling conflicts among refugees and migrant communities. Assuring equal treatment and enabling participation on equal terms (BICC Policy Brief series No. 6/2019). Bonn: BICC.

In BICC Policy Brief 6\2019 “On handling conflicts among refugees and migrant communities in NRW - Assuring equal treatment and enabling participation on equal terms”, the author Tim Röing gives the following recommendations: \ Address hostilities between refugees and people with a migration... more

Röing, T. (2019, June). Continuation of political conflicts or a new beginning? Turkish refugees in North Rhine-Westphalia (BICC Working Paper series No. 6/2019). Bonn: BICC.

Since the failed coup attempt by parts of the Turkish military against President Erdogan in summer 2016, the Turkish government has suspended more than 100,000 civil servants on the pretext of having planned a coup. For fear of persecution and arbitrary imprisonment, about 21,000 Turkish citizens... more

Etzold, B., Belloni, M., King, R., Kraler, A., & Pastore, F. (2019). Transnational Figurations of Displacement. Conceptualising protracted displacement and translocal connectivity through a process-oriented perspective (TRAFIG Working Paper 1/2019). Bonn: BICC.

Please find the Working Paper here. TRAFIG aims to contribute to the development of alternative solutions to protracted displacement that are tailored to the needs and capacities of displaced persons. This working paper contains our central concepts and key terms. We make use of the concept of... more

BICC, HSFK, IFSH, & INEF (Eds.). (2019). Friedensgutachten 2019. Berlin: LIT.

In peace and security policy, international and regional regulatory frameworks are under pressure, as are the institutions that serve to implement them. In this situation, the existing rules and institutions must be protected, and at the same time new rules and processes for securing peace must be... more

Christ, S. (2019, April). "Thank God, I don't feel like a refugee anymore" - Everyday life and integration processes of refugees (BICC Working Paper series No. 5/2019). Bonn: BICC.

BICC Working Paper 5\2019 by Simone Christ analyses integration processes of refugees in Germany, particularly taking the situation in North Rhine-Westphalia into account. The Working Paper is based on almost two years of field research that includes expert interviews, interviews with displaced... more

Schmitz-Pranghe, C., & Vollmer, R. (Eds.). (2019, March). Breaking cycles of displacement (BICC Knowledge Notes series No. 2/2019). Bonn: BICC.

On 28 and 29 November 2018, BICC hosted an international conference entitled “Breaking Cycles of Displacement” in Bonn. The conference presented and discussed the findings of the four-year-long comparative BICC research project “Protected rather than protracted—Strengthening Refugees and Peace”... more

Christ, S. (2019, March). The key to successful integration of refugees in Germany. Language skills, housing, work, social participation (BICC Policy Brief series No. 5/2019). Bonn: BICC.

In BICC Policy Brief 5\2019 "The key to successful integration of refugees in Germany. Language skills, housing, work, social participation", author Simone Christ understands integration as participation for all people that is as equitable as possible. Integration is a process of... more

Grawert, E. (2019, March). Between aid dependence, neighbourhood solidarity and the EU-Jordan Compact. Livelihood analysis of Syrian refugees in Greater Amman (BICC Working Paper series No. 4/2019). Bonn: BICC.

Jordan, with a population of about ten million, hosts 1.3 million Syrians of whom 670,000 are UNHCR-registered refugees, as well as nearly 85,000 registered refugees from other countries and is thus one of the countries with the highest proportion of refugees in the world. Most of them (83 per... more

Grawert, E. (2019, March). Post-war reintegration and reconciliation: Learning from Sierra Leone (BICC Policy Brief series No. 4/2019). Bonn: BICC.

During the eleven years of civil war in Sierra Leone, more than two million people—more than half of the population—were displaced and between 50,000 and 70,000 people were killed. In BICC Policy Brief 4\2019 the author Elke Grawert addresses post-war reintegration and reconciliation. The... more

Christ, S., Meininghaus, E., & Röing, T. (2019, March). “All Day Waiting” – Causes of conflict in refugee shelters in Germany (BICC Working Paper series No. 3/2019). Bonn: BICC.

This Working Paper argues that conflicts in refugee shelters in Germany can  largely be attributed to structural causes. These include the asylum regime,  the interplay between the physical layout and social relationships within refugee shelters, and the specific properties of the refugee... more

Grawert, E. (2019, March). The EU–Jordan Compact – A model for burden-sharing in refugee crises? (BICC Policy Brief series No. 3/2019). Bonn: BICC.

The EU-Jordan Compact links support for the government of Jordan as the host country of more than 670,000 registered Syrian refugees (in 2018) with economic cooperation and trade liberalisation to satisfy the interests of the government of Jordan and the European Union (EU). Established in 2016,... more

Bohnet, H., & Schmitz-Pranghe, C. (2019, February). Uganda: A role model for refugee integration? (BICC Working Paper series No. 2/2019). Bonn: BICC.

Uganda hosts the largest refugee population in Africa and is, after Turkey and Pakistan, the third-largest refugee recipient country worldwide. Political and humanitarian actors have widely praised Ugandan refugee policies because of their progressive nature: In Uganda, in contrast to many other... more

von Boemcken, M. (2019, February). Theologie, Therapie oder Teilhabe? Deutscher Salafismus, Radikalisierung und die Suche nach Präventionsstrategien (BICC Working Paper series No. 01/2019). Bonn: BICC.

In the BICC Working Paper "Theology, Therapy or Participation? German Salafism, Radicalisation and the Search for Prevention Strategies" author Marc von Boemcken analyses research approaches to the prevention of radicalisation. According to the security authorities, the number of violent... more

von Boemcken, M., Boboyorov, H., & Bagdasarova, N. (2019). Living dangerously: Securityscapes of Lyuli and LGBT people in urban spaces of Kyrgyzstan. In E. Lemon (Ed.), Critical approaches to security in Central Asia (pp. 149-165). London/New York: Routledge.

Please find the book here. Central Asia remains on the periphery, both spatially and in people’s imaginations. When the region does attract international attention, it is often related to security issues, including terrorism, ethnic conflict and drug trafficking.This book brings together leading... more

Meininghaus, E., Mielke, K., & Mutschler, M. (Eds.). (2019, February). Stabilisation—For whom and to what ends? (BICC Knowledge Notes series No. 1/2019). Bonn: BICC.

‘Stabilisation’ is becoming increasingly important as a policy paradigm in international security and development policy. However, different approaches to stabilisation are discussed in academia, policy and practice. Often, there is a tension between short-term approaches to stabilisation that are... more

Döring, M. (2019, January). Energy planning towards sustainability: Anchoring Tunisia’s energy transition to the local level (BICC Policy Brief series No. 1/2019). Bonn: BICC.

Tunisia faces three interconnected challenges: The first is overcoming its energy crisis and unsustainable fossil fuel dependency; the second is achieving economic growth to improve people’s livelihood, and the third is moving forward with political reforms. BICC’s Policy Brief “Energy planning... more

Döring, M., Schinke, B., Klawitter, J., Far, S., & Komendantova, N. (2018). Designing a conflict-sensitive and sustainable energy transition in the MENA region: Towards a multi-stakeholder dialogue on energy planning (MENA SELECT Working Paper). Bonn: BICC.

Energy transitions are more than just a process of replacing one type of electricity generation technology with another and eventually amending some market frameworks to support this switch economically. Energy transitions run deep in- to the fabric of social relations and require a... more

Grawert, E., & Mielke, K. (2018, November). Coping with protracted displacement - How Afghans secure their livelihood in Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan (BICC Working Paper series No. 2/2018). Bonn: BICC.

This Working Paper addresses the situation of Afghans before, during and after  their displacements in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran. Its aim is: (1) to under- stand how internally displaced lower-class Afghans, refugees who have   returned and Afghan refugees staying in... more

Komendantova, N., Ekenberg, L., Marashdeh, L., Al-Salaymeh, A., Danielson, M., & Linnerooth-Bayer, J. (2018). Policy Note: Energy for the future: Insights from the case study in Jordan (MENA SELECT Policy Note). Bonn: BICC.

The goal of this research was to understand the visions and views of different groups of stakeholders on different electricity-generation technologies currently considered in Jordan. A total of nine electricity-generation technologies  were evaluated (concentrated solar power, large-scale PV,... more

BICC (Ed.). (2018). Annual Report 2018. Bonn: BICC.

In its Annual Report 2018, the international peace and conflict research Institute BICC analyzes the question of how peace and sustainability can be interlinked, and which challenges arise from this.  The Annual Report 2018 not only connects research projects on forced displacement with this... more

Heinke, S. (Ed.). (2018, October). Global inequalities in the academic world: Researchers under threat (BICC Knowledge Notes series No. 2/2018). Bonn: BICC.

BICC partnered with Germany’s international broadcaster Deutsche Welle and hosted a session at the Global Media Forum 2018 “Global Inequalities” in Bonn, Germany. BICC’s session “Global inequalities in the academic world: Researchers under threat” took place on 12 June 2018. The session first drew... more

Meininghaus, E., & Kühn, M. (2018). Syria: Humanitarian access dilemmas (Welthungerhilfe Policy Brief October 2018). Berlin/Bonn: Welthungerhilfe.

Please find the Policy Brief here. A large-scale offensive by the Syrian regime and Russia on the governorate in North West Syria would have threatened the lives and livelihoods of close to 3 million persons. This Policy Brief by Dr. Esther Meininghaus (BICC) and Michael Kühn... more

Meininghaus, E., & Mielke, K. (2018, October). Situated sustainability: A research programme for conflict-affected settings and beyond (BICC Policy Brief series No. 10/2018). Bonn: BICC.

In BICC Policy Brief 10\2018 the authors Esther Meininghaus and Katja Mielke introduce the concept of situated sustainability: Situated sustainability comprises local practices, understandings and imaginations of resource use across and within significantly different contexts (spatial and other)... more

Schmitz-Pranghe, C. (2018, August). Schutz, Versöhnung und Zugang zu Rechten für Geflüchtete in Ecuador (BICC Policy Brief series No. 9/2018). Bonn: BICC.

The protracted situation of those that are internally displaced in and that have fled from Columbia as well as the exodus of large parts of the Venezuelan population pose enormous humanitarian as well as political challenges to the region, and particularly Ecuador as one of the major recipient... more

Döring, M., Far, S., Marrouki, S., & Elgolli, R. (2018). Energy for the future – Evaluating different electricity-generation technologies against selected performance characteristics and stakeholder preferences: Insights from the case study Tunisia (MENA SELECT Working Paper). Bonn: BICC.

Tunisia faces the challenge of meeting its increasing energy demand while at the same time responding to urgent developmental challenges in the midst of socio-political transformations. Achieving societal support for its energy policies is vital to a successful energy transition to sustainability.... more

Swatuk, L., & Wirkus, L. (Eds.). (2018). Water, climate change and the boomerang effect. Unintentional consequences for resource insecurity.. New York: Routledge.

In line with COP21 agreements, state-led climate change mitigation and adaptation actions are being undertaken to transition to carbon-neutral, green economies. However, the capacity of many countries for action is limited and may result in a ‘boomerang effect’, defined as the unintended... more

Komendantova, N., Ekenberg, L., Marashdeh, L., Al-Salaymeh, A., Danielson, M., & Linnerooth-Bayer, J. (2018). Energy for the future. Evaluating different electricity-generation technologies against selected performance characteristics and stakeholder preferences: Insights from the case study in Jordan (MENA SELECT Policy Paper). Bonn: BICC.

Energy transition towards a more significant share of domestically generated resources will inevitably lead to a societal transformation in Jordan, which will affect interests of existing and emerging electricity-generation industries and other stakeholders. To be sustainable, such a transition... more

Rudolf, M. (2018, July). Rückkehr in ein friedliches Myanmar? Eine Illusion verabschiedet sich (BICC Policy Brief series No. 8/2018). Bonn: BICC.

For many people in Myanmar, forced recruitment, landmines and religious discrimination are causes of displacement and obstacles to return. In BICC Policy Brief 8 \ 2018, Markus Rudolf analyzes the current conflicts and formulates recommendations for handling forced displacement in Myanmar from the... more

Rudolf, M., & Schmitz-Pranghe, C. (2018, July). Beyond aid: The continuous struggle to cope with displacement in Myanmar and Thailand (BICC Working Paper series No. 1/2018). Bonn: BICC.

Multi-party elections and the signing of a Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement (NCA) in 2015 raised hopes in the international community of a possible settlement of Myanmar’s protracted conflict and one of the world’s worst protracted displacement situations (PDS) in the near future. Yet conflicts in... more

Feneberg, V., & Olivier-Mensah, C. (2018, June). Gute Rückkehrpolitik braucht gute Rückkehrberatung (BICC Policy Brief series No. 7/2018). Bonn: BICC.

BICC Policy Brief 7\2018 „Gute Rückkehrpolitik braucht gute Rückkehrberatung. Empfehlungen zu ihrer Gestaltung“ (in German language) describes the complex, state-specific services regarding return advice. On the one hand, there is the non-statutory welfare sector that has developed professional,... more

BICC, HSFK, IFSH, & INEF (Eds.). (2018). Friedensgutachten 2018. Berlin: LIT.

The world is currently far removed from a stable and just peace order. The wars in the Middle East, Africa and elsewhere have claimed thousands of victims and are forcing people to flee. The common concern for peace through international co-operation – for example in the United Nations (UN) – is... more

Amroune, S., Blohm, M., Bohm, S., Far, S., & Zelt, O. (2018). Summary of workshop results: Scenario development and multi-criteria analysis for Tunisia’s future electricity system in 2050. Bonn: BICC.

Please find the project page here. Within the framework of the research project MiddleEast North Africa Sustainable Electricity Trajectories (MENASELECT), a two-day workshop was conducted in the Hotel Africa in Tunis, Tunisia on 19 and 20 October 2017. Stakeholder representatives from different... more

Far, S. (2018, May). Renewable energy: A key to enhancing the societal dimension of energy transition in Morocco (BICC Policy Brief series No. 6/2018). Bonn: BICC.

Morocco’s energy challenges lie at the intersection of the country’s development and climate challenges. In BICC Policy Brief 6\2018 “Renewable Energy: A Key to Enhancing the Societal Dimension of Energy Transition in Morocco” Shahrazad Far gives recommendations for future cooperation. Based on... more

Grawert, E., & Mielke, K. (2018, May). Exodus aus Afghanistan: Wie Deutschland Selbsthilfe und Eigeninitiativen unterstützen kann (BICC Policy Brief series No. 5/2018). Bonn: BICC.

In BICC Policy Brief 5\2018 the authors Katja Mielke and Elke Grawert discuss how Germany can support the agency of Afghans in protracted displacement. Based on their field research, they in particular recommend: \ Take the initiative for Afghanistan in the Global Compact for Migration: For... more

Heinke, S., & Isikozlu, E. (Eds.). (2018, April). “Dirty peace?” The political economy of peacebuilding (BICC Knowledge Notes series No. 1/2018). Bonn: BICC.

On 19 October 2017, BICC (Bonn International Center for Conversion) hosted its annual International Academic Conference entitled “‘Dirty Peace?’ The Political Economy of Peacebuilding” in Bonn. BICC Knowledge Note 1\2018, edited by Elvan Isikozlu and Susanne Heinke documents the conference... more

Korf, B., Raeymaekers, T., Schetter, C., & Watts, M. J. (2018). Geographies of limited statehood. In T. Risse, T. A. Börzel, & A. Draude (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of governance and limited statehood (pp. 167-190). Oxford: Oxford Handbooks.

Starting from the presupposition that areas of limited statehood (ALS) are not ungoverned, but ‘differently’ governed, this chapter proposes a spatial grammar that analyses authority and governance as a socio-spatial relationship. This spatial grammar distinguishes four types of dynamic... more

Swatuk, L. (2018). Commentary \ Hello #WaterWars, bye bye #DayZero—Where have you gone ClimateChaos old friend?.
Bonn: BICC.

Larry Swatuk, Associate Researcher at BICC, comments on ongoing popular debates like #WaterWars, #DayZero. He argues for avoiding alarmism and hyperbole as tools of motivation for human action.  Instead, Swatuk reflects on the challenge to ensure adequate amounts and qualities of water for the... more

von Boemcken, M., Boboyorov, H., & Bagdasarova, N. (2018). Living dangerously: Securityscapes of Lyuli and LGBT people in urban spaces of Kyrgyzstan. Central Asian Survey, 37(1), 68-84.

Imaginations of existential threat do not only express themselves in exceptional actions – as prominently suggested by securitization theory – but also in routine, day-to-day practices. They can become a part of ‘normal’ life. We demonstrate this by following the everyday activities of individuals... more

Dick, E., Schraven, B., Koch, A., & Etzold, B. (2018, January). Regional migration governance: Contributions to a sustainable international migration architecture (BICC Policy Brief series No. 1/2018). Bonn: BICC.

At the UN Summit for Refugees and Migrants in  September 2016, it was agreed to develop two new global agreements: The Global Compact for Safe, Orderly  and Regular Migration and the Global Compact on  Refugees, to be adopted in late 2018. It is expected  that both ... more

Etzold, B. (2017). Capitalising on asylum – The reconfiguration of refugees’ access to local fields of labour in Germany. Refugee Review, 3, 82-102.

Since 2014, several legal reforms in Germany have reduced bureaucratic barriers for refugees’ access to work. They were coupled with the introduction of more language classes and other skill-enhancing measures. This proclaimed aim of quickly integrating refugees in the labour market marks a... more

BICC (Ed.). (2017). Annual Report 2017. Bonn: BICC.

Civil wars, such as in Syria/ Iraq, Afghanistan, South Sudan or in Donbass persist, as does forced migration as an effect of violent conflicts around the world. Researchers of the peace and conflict research institute BICC (Bonn International Center for Conversion) conduct empirical research and... more

Grawert, E., Isikozlu, E., Murtaza Haqeeqat, M., & Shirzad, F. (2017). Conflict-sensitive employment framework (CSEF) for construction and transport companies. Bonn: BICC.

When companies operate in fragile and conflict-affected settings (FCAS), they encounter a range of particular problems. Many companies try to protect staff, premises and ­machinery by hiring security guards. Armed guards ­escort convoys of trucks. Expenditures for security ­measures can be quite... more

Grawert, E., & Shirzad, F. (2017, July). Conflict-sensitive employment in Afghan construction and transport companies (BICC Working Paper series No. 5/2017). Bonn: BICC.

With the aim of identifying the challenges of and motives for conflict-sensitive employment, the authors Elke Grawert (BICC) and Fazalrabi Shirzad (The Liaison Office, TLO) present a qualitative study on construction and transport companies in Afghanistan, based on interviews with company owners... more

Etzold, B. (2017). Mobility, space and livelihood trajectories. New perspectives on migration, translocality and place-making for livelihood studies. In L. de Haan (Ed.), Livelihoods and development – New perspectives (Brill Publications) (pp. 44-68). Leiden: Brill Publications.

People’s movements and their immobilities are structured by and structure specific livelihood trajectories and the places at the crossroads. This chapter connects livelihood studies to recent geographical research and draws on Bourdieu’s Theory of Practice as conceptual frame analysing the... more

Bohnet, H. (2017, June). Going beyond temporary measures (BICC Policy Brief series No. 4/2017). Bonn: BICC.

Despite recent peace talks in Geneva in February and March, the conflict in Syria shows no signs of ending soon. Consequently, the refugees’ chances of finding durable solutions remain slim and most Syrian refugees can only try to build a livelihood within Turkey. This Policy Brief by Heidrun... more

Christ, S., Meininghaus, E., & Röing, T. (2017, June). Konfliktprävention in Unterkünften – Selbstverantwortung geflüchteter Menschen stärken (BICC Policy Brief series No. 3/2017). Bonn: BICC.

This Policy Brief presents recommendations on conflict prevention in German refugee shelters, in which all refugees are obliged to live until their applications for asylum have been processed. This study aims to contribute to prevent, minimise or resolve conflict at the level of shelters run by the... more

Heinemann-Grüder, A. (2017). Die Resilienz des Putinismus. Zeitschrift für Politik, 64(2), 214-234.

In order to understand Russia's regime we should study the interaction of formal and informal, of charismatic and clientelistic politics, of security politics and loyalty, of insecurity and mobilization, the repertoire of feudal politics and the political economy of state monopolistic capitalism.... more

Christ, S., Meininghaus, E., & Röing, T. (2017, May). "All Day Waiting"—Konflikte in Unterkünften für Geflüchtete in NRW (BICC Working Paper series No. 3/2017). Bonn: BICC.

Germany's shelter system for refugees differs between its 16 federal states; this study focuses on the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), which hosts the highest number of refugees who have entered  Germany thus far. Using a qualitative approach, the study conducted by BICC researchers... more

Müller-Koné, M., Schmitz-Pranghe, C., & Schetter, C. (2017, May). Flucht und Binnenvertreibung in Asien: Ansatzpunkte für und Grenzen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit (BICC Working Paper series No. 2/2017). Bonn: BICC.

Asia and the Pacific region are particularly affected by displacement: 3.8 million  people are under the mandate of the UNHCR and millions of these are internally  displaced people (IDPs). The causes of displacement in Asia are multiple and go  well beyond what is covered by the... more

Python, A., Brandsch, J., & Tskhay, A. (2017). Provoking local ethnic violence – A global study on ethnic polarization and terrorist targeting. Political Geography, 58(May 2017), 77-89.

This article theorizes and empirically investigates the link between ethnic divisions and terrorist attacks on a local scale. We argue that terrorists in ethnic contexts can use two separate provocation strategies: one targeting the government and one targeting opposing ethnic groups in order to... more

Mielke, K., & Hornidge, A.-K. (Eds.). (2017). Area studies at the crossroads. Knowledge production after the mobility turn. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

In this pioneering volume, leading scholars from a diversity of backgrounds in the humanities, social sciences, and different area studies argue for a more differentiated and self-reflected role of area-based science in global knowledge production. Considering that the mobility of people, goods,... more

Mielke, K., & Hornidge, A.-K. (2017). Introduction: Knowledge production, area studies and the mobility turn. In K. Mielke, & A. Hornidge (Eds.), Area studies at the crossroads. Knowledge production after the mobility turn (pp. 3-26). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Mielke, K, & Hornidge, A.-K. (2017). Introduction: Knowledge Production, Area Studies and the Mobility Turn. In K. Mielke, & A.-K. Hornidge (Eds.), Area Studies at the Crossroads. Knowledge Production after the Mobility Turn (pp. 3-26). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. more

Hornidge, A.-K., & Mielke, K. (2017). The art of science policy for 21st century area studies: Concluding reflections. In K. Mielke, & A. Hornidge (Eds.), Area studies at the crossroads. Knowledge production after the mobility turn (pp. 327-344). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hornidge, A.-K., & Mielke, K. (2017). The Art of Science Policy for 21st Century Area Studies: Concluding Reflections. In K. Mielke, & A.-K. Hornidge (Eds.), Area Studies at the Crossroads. Knowledge Production after the Mobility Turn (pp. 327-344). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.  more

Mielke, K., & Wilde, A. (2017). The role of area studies in theory production. A differentiation of mid-range concepts and the example of social order. In K. Mielke, & A. Hornidge (Eds.), Area studies at the crossroads. Knowledge production after the mobility turn (pp. 159-176). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Mielke, K, & Wilde, A. (2017). The Role of Area Studies in Theory Production. A Differentiation of Mid-Range Concepts and the Example of Social Order. In K. Mielke, & A.-K. Hornidge (Eds.), Area Studies at the Crossroads. Knowledge Production after the Mobility Turn (pp. 159-176). New York:... more

Rudolf, M. (2017, April). Wanted: Good governance—protection of minorities and human rights in northern Iraq (BICC Policy Brief series No. 2/2017). Bonn: BICC.

Dealing with the aftermath of the current situation in northern Iraq requires a mid-and a long-term strategy. The author of BICC Policy Brief 2 \ 2017 “Wanted: Good Governance—Protection of minorities and human rights in northern Iraq”, Markus Rudolf, stresses that both have to recognize... more

Heinke, S., & Isikozlu, E. (Eds.). (2017, March). Fleeing conflict—Trajectories of displaced persons (BICC Knowledge Notes series No. 2/2017). Bonn: BICC.

On 3 November 2016, BICC hosted its annual International Academic Conference, focussing this year on the pressing global issue of internal displacement and refugee movements. Almost 65 million people are currently displaced worldwide, most of whom have been displaced for more than five years.... more

Etzold, B., Schimpl, H., Hamm, & Sonnack (2017). Dokumentation: "Lokale Konflikte um die Aufnahme und Unterbringung von Geflüchteten: Welchen Beitrag leisten Bürgerbeteiligung und Konfliktmediation vor Ort?". Bonn: BICC.

In many cities in Germany, there have been conflicts around the reception, housing and integration of refugees. Local actors responsible for the housing of refugees have used various strategies to encounter this challenge. On 17 February, municipal actors (mayors, representatives from the... more

Schinke, B., Klawitter, J., Döring, M., Komendantova, N., Irshaid, J., & Bayer, J. (2017). Electricity planning for sustainable development in the MENA region (Mena Select Working Paper). Bonn: BICC.

As electricity systems are not developed in isolation from society, but in a continuous interaction with social, economic, environmental, and political dimensions, this publication aims to develop a comprehensive database for the purpose of evaluating the complex trade-offs between different... more

Schinke, B., Klawitter, J., Döring, M., Komendantova, N., Irshaid, J., & Bayer, J. (2017). Description of electricity generation technologies.

This chapter describes the eight electricity generation technologies considered in this publication by illustrating the basic principles behind each form of electricity generation, the conventional sub-types for each technology, as well as their common application and specific technological... more

Heinke, S. (Ed.). (2017, February). Ehemalige militärische Liegenschaften im urbanen Raum - Konversion für die Zukunftsstadt (BICC Knowledge Notes series No. 1/2017). Bonn: BICC.

On 19 May 2016, BICC hosted the one-day international expert workshop “Former military sites in urban space—Conversion for the city of the future?” in Bonn. BICC Knowledge Note 1\2017 documents the results. The workshop hoped to find answers to the question which impulses the conversion of former... more

Christ, S. (2017). ‘You are supposed to treat them like your mum and dad’: Narratives about transnational family lives by middle-class Filipino children. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 43(6), 902-918.

The Philippines is a labour exporting country since the 1970s. Due to the contract labour systems in destinations such as the Middle East or East Asia, migrants are usually not able to bring their family members. This development led to the rise of transnational families – families who maintain... more

Schetter, C. (2016). Playing the ethnic card: On the ethnicization of Afghan politics. Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, 16(3), 460-477.

Ethnicity became a pivotal element of the Bonn Agreement 2001 aiming to end the civil wars in Afghanistan that have been ongoing since 1979. In the political process, ethnic categories were understood as key building blocks of Afghan society. In essence, the Bonn Agreement sought to outbalance... more

Etzold, B., & Sakdapolrak, P. (2016). Socio-spatialities of vulnerability: Towards a polymorphic perspective in vulnerability research. Die Erde, 147(4), 234-251.

“The space of vulnerability” – the title of the influential paper by Michael Watts and Hans-Georg Bohle from 1993 – highlights the importance of spatiality for vulnerability research. As geographers have fundamentally shaped the concept of vulnerability, the issue of spatiality has been crucial for... more

Sakdapolrak, P., & Etzold, B. (2016). Editorial to the special section "Geographies of vulnerability and resilience - Critical explorations". Die Erde, 147(4), 230-233.

In the past 30 years the concept of vulnerability has been an important paradigm in human geography and development studies. Vulnerability analyses have significantly enhanced our understanding of everyday life under conditions of poverty and food insecurity in the Global South and of people's... more

Etzold, B., & Mallick, B. (2016). Moving beyond the focus on environmental migration towards recognizing the normality of translocal lives: Insights from Bangladesh. In A. Milan, B. Schraven, K. Warner, & N. Cascone (Eds.), Migration, risk management and climate change: Evidence and policy responses (pp. 105-128). Basel, Switzerland: Springer.

In the popular debate about climate change and adaptation in Bangladesh, migration is most often framed in a negative light: People are fleeing due to environmental changes and are displaced in the wake of disasters. Mobility is largely seen as a reaction and migrants as more or less passive... more

Rudolf, M. (2016). Casamance secession: National narratives of marginalization and integration. In C. Højbjerg, J. Knörr, & W. Murphy (Eds.), Politics and policies in Upper Guinea Coast societies: Change and continuity (pp. 187-202). New York: Palgrave Macmillan US.

This book examines the radical changes in social and political landscape of the Upper Guinea Coast region over the past 30 years as a result of civil wars, post-war interventions by international, humanitarian agencies and peacekeeping missions, as well as a regional public health crisis (Ebola... more

Mager, A., Wirkus, L., & Schoepfer, E. (2016). Impact assessment of oil exploitation in South Sudan using multi-temporal landsat imagery. Photogrammetrie – Fernerkundung – Geoinformation(4), 211-223.

This scientific report examines the spatial impacts of oil exploitation in Melut County, South Sudan, at six points in the time span between 1999 and 2011, based on Landsat satellite data. Three features were analysed: cropland, oil well pads and roads. Feature extraction consisted of pixel- and... more

Cermeño, H., & Mielke, K. (2016). Cityscapes of Lahore: Reimagining the urban. In P. Vandal (Ed.), Peoples history of Pakistan (pp. 110-139). Lahore: THAAP Journal.

Cermeño, H., & Mielke, K. (2016). Cityscapes of Lahore: Reimagining the Urban. In P. Vandal (Ed.), Peoples History of Pakistan (pp. 110-139). Lahore: THAAP Journal.  more

Meininghaus, E. (2016). Emergency aid in intra-state war and implications for post-conflict reconstruction: The Syrian medical system. Contemporary Levant, 1(2), 108-124.

This article analyses the dire state of the health system in war-torn Syria. It investigates the drastic changes that have transpired in health provisions since the beginning of the conflict and sheds light on emerging coping mechanisms. The article traces the militarisation of medical care and... more

Mielke, K. (2016). Tracing change: On the positionality of traditionally mobile groups in Kabul’s camps. Internationales Asienforum/ International Quarterly for Asian Studies, 47(3-4), 245-271.

This article explores the positionalities of two traditionally mobile groups of people in Afghanistan, former pastoralists and peripatetics, who are currently living in several urban camps in Kabul. Starting from the assumption of their immobilization in-between places, the research shows their... more

Bohnet, H. (2016, October). Back to turmoil: Refugee and IDP return to and within South Sudan (BICC Working Paper series No. 7/2016). Bonn: BICC.

In BICC Working Paper 7\2016 Heidrun Bohnet investigates the challenges South Sudanese returnees and displaced persons face from their very own perspective. Building on field research in the autumn and winter of 2015, the author analyses the patterns of return and coping strategies of returnees, as... more

Bohnet, H., Cottier, F., & Hug, S. (2016). Conflict-induced IDPs and the spread of conflict. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 1-26.

Recent scholarship has found evidence that refugee flows may inadvertently contribute to the spread of conflict across borders. Little is known, however, about the spatial diffusion of conflict within a state’s borders and what role internal displacement plays in such a dynamic. This question is of... more

Christ, S. (2016). The culture of migration in the Philippines: Of Jeepneys and Balikbayan Boxes. Berlin: regiospectra.

Since the 1970s, the Philippine state has been sending migrant workers to the global labor market. Today, around 10% of the population lives abroad. After more than 40 years of state-sponsored labor ‘export’, international labor migration has become a way of life in the Philippines.  From the... more

von Boemcken, M., Schetter, C., Boboyorov, H., Bagdasarova, N., & Sulaimanov, J. (2016, June). Local security-making in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan (BICC Working Paper series No. 5/2016). Bonn: BICC.

In cooperation with researchers in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, BICC (Bonn International Center for Conversion) is conducting a three-year research project on everyday security practices in Central Asia, which is funded by the Volkswagen Foundation. The project was launched in July 2015. While... more

Meininghaus, E. (2016). Commentary \ The World Humanitarian Summit—Reform the system, but do not merge humanitarian and development aid. Bonn: BICC.

Esther Meininghaus, researcher at BICC, comments on the World Humanitarian Summit, 23-24 May 2016 in Istanbul. She underlines that “we need to act, and we need to act fast” but also addresses mayor shifts in aid funding and the crisis of the UN. Last but not least she argues that the separation of... more

Bohnet, H. (2016, May). Return to violent conflict? Challenges of sustainable return of refugees and internally displaced persons to and within South Sudan (BICC Policy Brief series No. 2/2016). Bonn: BICC.

The case of South Sudan shows that peace on paper does not necessarily mean peace on the ground. Many displaced persons are sceptical of the peace process and the commitment of their leaders, in particular as nothing has changed since the beginning of the conflict. Nevertheless, over ten thousand... more

Grawert, E., & Abul-Magd, Z. (Eds.). (2016). Businessmen in arms: How the military and other armed groups profit in the MENA Region. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

The Arab Uprisings have brought renewed attention to the role of the military in the MENA region, where they are either the backbone of regime power or a crucial part of patronage networks in political systems. This collection of essays from international experts examines the economic interests of... more

Meininghaus, E. (2016). Humanitarianism in intra-state conflict: aid inequality and local governance in government- and opposition-controlled areas in the Syrian war. Third World Quarterly, 37(8), 1454-1482.

This article argues that humanitarian aid in intra-state conflict plays a crucial but largely unrecognised role in shaping the preconditions for negotiations for peace and post-conflict reconstruction. Drawing on a spatial theory approach, it identifies the role of humanitarian aid as not being... more

Mielke, K., & Grawert, E. (2016, February). Why Afghanistan is no safe country of origin (BICC Policy Brief series No. 1/2016). Bonn: BICC.

Based on their field research, the authors Katja Mielke and Elke Grawert reason in policy brief 1/2016 why Afghanistan is no safe country of return. They give policy recommendations that take into account the complex insecurity situation in which the Afghan population finds itself after the decline... more

Bohnet, H., Mielke, K., Rudolf, M., Schetter, C., & Vollmer, R. (2015, December). Protected rather than protracted: Strengthening displaced persons in peace processes (BICC Working Paper series No. 3/2015). Bonn: BICC.

This Paper reviews the current state of the art on the return of displaced persons as a durable solution for long-term displacement situations. It outlines the impact, challenges and actors involved in the return process. The Paper shows that present understandings of return, protracted situations... more

Rüegger, S., & Bohnet, H. (2015). The ethnicity of refugees (ER): A new dataset for understanding flight patterns. Conflict Management and Peace Science, First published online November 16/2015.

Introducing a new cross-national dataset on the ethnicity of refugees, covering the years 1975–2009, this study analyzes refugee flight patterns. We argue that the asylum destination of refugees is not haphazard but determined by trans-border ethnic linkages. Building on migration theories, we... more

Far, S., & Youngs, R. (2015). Energy union and EU global strategy: The undefined link (SIEPS Report series No. 5). Stockholm: Swedish Institute for European Policy Studies.

The European Energy Union is a political strategy aimed at ensuring communitarian energy transition, security of supply, a fully integrated European energy market and increased energy efficiency. However, the origin and content of the strategy is simultaneously well rooted in the EU’s external... more

Bohnet, H., & Rudolf, M. (2015, October). Voluntary return of refugees: Chances for peace and sustainable development? (BICC Policy Brief series No. 3/2015). Bonn: BICC.

By the end of 2014, 6.4 million refugees found themselves in protracted situations that have been in place for over five years, and numbers are rising. Could return be a solution to these protracted situations? In BICC Policy Brief 3\2015 Heidrun Bohnet and Markus Rudolf point out what issues... more

Licata, A. (2015). Commentary \ "Military barracks for profit? A critical reflection on conversion in Italy". Bonn: BICC.

Dr Andrea Licata, political scientist from Italy and Associate Researcher of BICC, comments on the Italian politics of base conversion. His criticism of only state budget driven approaches to bases closures is that they “disregard the potential of former military sites at the local level” and “deny... more

Bernarding, N., Guesnet, L., & Müller-Koné, M. (2015, May). No rebel without a cause. Shifting the debate about conflict minerals in eastern DRC (BICC Working Paper series No. 2/2015). Bonn: BICC.

Precluding conflict financing through the minerals sector has come to be seen as the panacea to ending conflicts in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The US Dodd-Frank-Act (2010) and European draft legislation attempt to reduce the financing of armed groups in conflict zones by... more

Müller-Koné, M., & Guesnet, L. (2015, April). How to enforce due diligence? Making EU-legislation on ‘Conflict Minerals’ effective (BICC Policy Brief series No. 2/2015). Bonn: BICC.

In the weeks and months ahead, the European parliament has a decisive role in reaching meaningful European legislation on the responsible sourcing of minerals from conflict regions. In mid- May 2015, it is due to vote on an EU regulation drafted by the European Commission. In BICC Policy Brief... more

Swatuk, L. (2015). Commentary \ "Water woes but not water wars: Getting beyond fatalism". Bonn: BICC.

Professor Larry Swatuk, University of Waterloo, Canada, is an expert on environmental security and natural resources governance. Commenting on the water crisis in California he argues: “In my view, this prolonged drought challenges not only Californians but every one of us to reconsider the ends to... more

Heinke, S. (Ed.). (2015, January). Konversionsforschung im Praxistest - Liegenschaftskonversion in Deutschland und Westeuropa (BICC Knowledge Notes series No. 1/2015). Bonn: BICC.

On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of BICC on 10 April 2014, the Center organised the expert workshop “Conversion Studies put to the test—Base conversion in Germany and Western Europe”. BICC Knowledge Note 1/2015 documents the contributions to and discussions of the workshop (in German). 25... more

Guesnet, L., Müller-Koné, M., & Zeil, M. (Eds.). (2014). Compensation matters. Securing community interests in large-scale investments. Berlin/Bonn: Brot für die Welt/BICC.

The study “Compensation Matters Securing community interests in large-scale investments” provides analyses of contentious issues in compensation matters such as power relations in negotiations, entitlements for compensation and types of compensation. Furthermore, it offers practitioners tools and... more

Ebertz, U., & Müller-Koné, M. (2013, June). Legacy of a resource-fueled war: The role of generals in Angola’s mining sector (BICC Focus series No. 12). Bonn: BICC.

After a sketch of the current need for reform in the Kimberley Process for rough diamonds, BICC Focus 12 “Legacy of a resource-fueled war: The role of generals in Angola’s mining sector” scrutinizes the role that generals of the Angolan state armed forces FAA play in Angola’s mining... more

Grawert, E., & Andrä, C. (2013, May). Oil investment and conflict in Upper Nile State (Brief series No. 48). Bonn: BICC.

This brief aims to contribute to the study of the relationship between government, oil corporations, and local communities in South Sudan. Its area of study are the oil fields of Blocks 3 and 7 in Melut and Maban Counties, Upper Nile State, the largest oil producing area in the country,... more

van de Vondervoort, L., Deng, D., & Mertenskoetter, P. (2013). Establishing a mining sector in postwar South Sudan. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.

This report is based on research conducted in Juba, Torit, and Kapoeta during August and September 2012. The research provides an initial examination on the underdocumented issue of mining in South Sudan and seeks to provide the government of South Sudan with evidence-based... more

Tahmasebi, A., Ehlers, E., & Schetter, C. (2013). Climate change and mountain pastoralism - The Shahsevan of Northwest Iran. Erdkunde, 67(4), 309-323.

High-mountain areas in arid environments are extremely sensitive indicators of sometimes only slight changes of precipitations and temperatures. This holds true especially for the so far under-researched mountain regions of Iran and its immediate neighbours. Climate change, however, is not the only... more

Schetter, C. (2013). The Durand Line. The Afghan-Pakistani border region between Pashtunistan, Tribalistan and Talibanistan. Internationales Asienforum, 44(1-2), 47-70.

While the borderland between Afghanistan and Pakistan has gained global significance since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, it is too narrow an approach to view this region solely through the lens of the “war on terror”. To understand this border region, one has to take the complex web of conflicts... more

Müller-Koné, M., & Hütz-Adams, F. (Eds.). (2012, September). Auf der Suche nach dem sauberen Gold: Kleinbergbau von Gold in Peru und DR Kongo (Brief series No. 46). Bonn: BICC.

Researchers from SÜDWIND and BICC traveled to gold mines in the DR Congo and Peru in the framework of a joint project  to find out which measures can help small-scale and artisanal miners to secure their livelihood in regions of conflict and to improve social and ecological mining... more

Grawert, E. (2012). Making a living in rural Sudan.. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Food Production of Women, Labour Migration of Men, and Policies for Peasants' Need. This book was first published in Basingstoke/London/New York by MacMillan Press / St. Martin's Press in 1998. The rights have been reverted to the author, Elke Grawert, in 2007. Reproduction, copy of transmission... more

Croll, P. (2012). Participation of diaspora In peacebuilding and development.

E-Discussion Report Participation of Diaspora In Peacebuilding and Development Stabilization & Peacebuilding Community of Practice, September 9th – October 24th 2011    more

von Boemcken, M., Ashkenazi, M., & Schmitz-Pranghe, C. (2011, December). Commercial security and development: Findings from Timor-Leste, Liberia and Peru (Brief series No. 45). Bonn: BICC.

Commercial security affects a number of development-related factors, such as the capacity of states to govern, overall feelings of public safety, economic growth and social welfare.Findings from field research in Timor-Leste, Liberia and Peru indicate that the relation between commercial security... more

Croll, P., & Vollmer, R. (2011). Kompetenzzentrum Diaspora.

Lecture on behalf of the Stuttgart expert meeting on migrants in human rights activities (9 December 2011). more

Vollmer, R., & Warnecke, A. (2011, April). Migration – Integration – Entwicklung. Afrikanische Migrantenorganisationen in NRW (Brief series No. 44). Bonn: BICC.

On behalf of the Stiftung Umwelt und Entwicklung Nordrhein-Westfalen (SUE), the State Government of North Rhine-Westphalia and the Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), BICC carried out a study on „Migration—Integration—Development. African migrant organizations in North... more

Müller-Koné, M. (2010, June). Revenue transparency to mitigate the resource curse in the Niger Delta? Potential and reality of NEITI (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

The paper begins with a discussion of the possible negative consequences of oil exploitation in developing countries, often referred to as resource curse, introducing the analytical framework of the ‘petro-state’ (Section 1). In order to assess the relevance of revenue transparency for addressing... more

Warnecke, A., Tänzler, D., & Vollmer, R. (2010). Climate change, migration and conflict: Receiving communities under pressure?.

This paper analyzes the likely intersections between climate change, migration and conflict. The paper identifies some of the most relevant factors that might turn environmentally induced migration into a source of conflict and hold major implications for receiving areas. more

Warnecke, A., & Schmitz-Pranghe, C. (2010, April). Diasporas and peace: A comparative assessment of Somali and Ethiopian communities in Europe (Brief series No. 42). Bonn: BICC.

BICC brief 42 "Diasporas and Peace: A Comparative Assessment of Somali and Ethiopian communities in Europe" is a DIASPEACE working paper.DIASPEACE (Diasporas for Peace: Patterns, Trends and Potential of Long-distance Diaspora Involvement in Conflict Settings) is a three-year research... more

Frank, C., & Guesnet, L. (2009, November). “We were promised development and all we got is misery” — The influence of petroleum on conflict dynamics in Chad (Brief series No. 41). Bonn: BICC.

BICC brief 41 analyzes the effects of oil production on conflict dynamics in Chad. The authors, Lena Guesnet and Claudia Frank conclude in the study that the goal of the project supported by the World Bank, to foster development in the Central African country has failed miserably.The Chad-Cameroon... more

Guesnet, L., Müller-Koné, M., & Schure, J. (2009, November). Natural resources in Côte d’Ivoire: Fostering crisis or peace? The cocoa, diamond, gold and oil sectors (Brief series No. 40). Bonn: BICC.

The trade and exploitation of natural resources such as cocoa, gold, petroleum and diamonds contributed to the conflict in Côte d’Ivoire and still obstruct the peace process in the country. This is one of the conclusions of BICC brief 40, entitled: “Natural Resources in Côte d’Ivoire: Fostering... more

Wirkus, L., & Warner, K. (2009). Evidence of the impacts of climate change on human security in Africa, with reference to migration and water-related conflict.

Paper presented at the International Conference on Climate Change, Social Stress and Violent Conflict, Hamburg 19–20 November 2009. more

Schmitz-Pranghe, C., & Vollmer, R. (Eds.). (2009, April). Migration and displacement in Sub-Saharan Africa: The security-migration nexus II (Brief series No. 39). Bonn: BICC.

BICC brief 39 is a documentation of the results of the international conference "Migration and Displacement in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Security – Migration Nexus II" (13-14 February 2009, Bonn). The event was supported by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)... more

Dehérez, D. (2009, April). The scarcity of land in Somalia. Natural resources and their role in the Somali conflict (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

A historical perspective, as proposed by this Occasional Paper, might illuminate one of the underlying roots of conflict and state failure and might also help address central problems to conflict resolution in Somalia. It is the thesis of this Paper that in the fertile riverine areas of southern... more

Guesnet, L., Schure, J., & Paes, W.-C. (Eds.). (2009, March). Digging for peace: Private companies and emerging economies in zones of conflict (Brief series No. 38). Bonn: BICC.

BICC brief 38 documents the international conference “Digging for Peace: Private Companies and Emerging Economies in Zones of Conflict” which took place from 21 to 22 November 2008 in Bonn. About 120 participants, amongst them representatives of research institutes, private companies, civil society... more

Vollmer, R., Ardakanian, R., Hare, M., Leentvaar, J., van der Schaaf, C., & Wirkus, L. (2009). Institutional capacity development in transboundary water management.

Institutional Capacity Development in Transboundary Water Management. The United Nations World Water Assessment Programme, Side Publication Series “Insights”. UNESCO, Paris. more

Wirkus, L., & Swatuk, L. (Eds.). (2009). Transboundary water governance in Southern Africa. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

This collection of Southern African case studies is intended to contribute to the burgeoning literature on transboundary water governance (TBWG) particularly as it applies to areas of the Global South. Specifically, the collection interrogates the idea of the ‘boundary’. Transboundary Management is... more

Swatuk, L., & Wirkus, L. (2009). Transboundary water governance in Southern Africa: Beyond the state. In L. Swatuk, & L. Wirkus (Eds.), Transboundary water governance in Southern Africa – Examining underexplored dimension (Reihe Sustainable peace and global security governance) (pp. 197-207). Baden-Baden: Nomos.

This collection of Southern African case studies is intended to contribute to the burgeoning literature on transboundary water governance (TBWG) particularly as it applies to areas of the Global South. Specifically, the collection interrogates the idea of the ‘boundary’. Transboundary... more

Swatuk, L., & Wirkus, L. (2009). Transboundary water governance in Southern Africa: An indroduction. In L. Swatuk, & L. Wirkus (Eds.), Transboundary water governance in Southern Africa – Ecamining underexplored dimension (Reihe Sustainable Peace abd Global Security Governance) (pp. 11-29). Baden-Baden: Nomos.

This collection of Southern African case studies is intended to contribute to the burgeoning literature on transboundary water governance (TBWG) particularly as it applies to areas of the Global South. Specifically, the collection interrogates the idea of the ‘boundary’. Transboundary... more

Heinke, S. (Ed.). (2008, May). Conflict diamonds and peace process in Côte d’Ivoire (BICC Focus series No. 8). Bonn: BICC.

Côte d’Ivoire is the only country, which is currently under embargo by the United Nations for the export of conflict diamonds since December 2005. The conflict and years of ‘no war, no peace’ have been profitable for both the military and the Forces Nouvelles (FN) rebels, thereby paralyzing the... more

Croll, P., Paes, W.-C., & Lebzien, A. (2008, April). Yellow Imperialism’ or ‘successful wealth creation formula’?: How the trade in natural resources is changing Chinese-African relations (BICC Focus series No. 7). Bonn: BICC.

Frustrated by complex donor policies and the high overhead costs of multilateral development projects, many African governments appreciated the alternative presented by the Chinese government in an increasingly multi-polar world.However, a sober analysis of China’s role in Africa indicates that... more

Heinze, M.-C. (2008, February). Die Peacebuilding Commission der Vereinten Nationen: Ein Generalschlüssel für den Frieden? (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

Most experts agree that sustainable peace consolidation demands more than a mere end of violence. Besides the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) of ex-combatants and the re-establishment of national security and the state monopoly of violence it also needs the establishment and... more

Friedrich, R., & Luethold, A. (Eds.). (2007). Entry-points to Palestinian security sector reform. Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF).

Security sector reform (SSR) is on top of the Palestinian reform agenda. Palestinians want effective and accountable security forces that respond to their security needs. For them, security sector reform is also necessary to advance Palestinian state-building. However, many political organisations... more

Franke, V., Hampel-Milagrosa, A., & Schure, J. (2007, November). In control of natural wealth? Governing the resource-conflict dynamic (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

For many developing countries, the extraction of natural resources has been a blessing, as their export can provide urgently needed development capital. For others, however, resource wealth has been a curse, as their population still faces extreme poverty and they have been haunted by corruption,... more

Böge, V., & Krieger, N. (2007, October). Tabellarische Übersicht ausgewählter Fälle aus den Bereichen extraktive Industrien, Wald und Wasserwirtschaft (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

This synopsis on ‘resources and conflict’ presents 16 contemporary cases in which large projects from the areas of the extractive industries (oil, gas, and mining), logging and water management have led to violent or violence-prone conflicts. The synopsis comprises the core variables that determine... more

Radecke, H. (2007, October). Wie ein Phönix aus der Asche? Der Stand der Friedenskonsolidierung in Sierra Leone nach den Wahlen (BICC Focus series No. 6). Bonn: BICC.

For the second time since the official end of the bloody civil war in 2002, the citizens of Sierra Leone were called up to cast their ballots in parliamentary and Presidential elections on 11 August 2007. The elections are a litmus test for the stability of the post-war order in Sierra Leone, which... more

Krieger, N. (2007, July). Gewinnung natürlicher Ressourcen in Konfliktsituationen: Bestandsaufnahme zu den Positionen und Strategien relevanter EZ-Akteure (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

Violent conflict around the extraction of natural resources characterizes everyday life in many resource-rich development countries. In particular in countries, where state structures are weak and where deficits in resource governance exist, a specific constellation of controversial extraction... more

Sommer, J., & Warnecke, A. (Eds.). (2007, June). The security- migration nexus: Challenges and opportunities of African migration to EU countries (Brief series No. 36). Bonn: BICC.

BICC brief 36 documents the papers and speeches presented at the conference “The Security-Migration Nexus: Challenges and Opportunities of African Migration to EU Countries” which was held at Bonn, 22–23 February 2008. The event was commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for Economic... more

Böge, V. (2007, June). Das BP Tangguh Erdgasprojekt in West-Papua/ Indonesien (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

The BP Tangguh gas project in the Indonesian province of (West) Papua is the currently largest development project in Indonesia. Situated in Bintuni Bay in the west of New Guinea, BP intends to extract natural gas from offshore gas fields, liquefy it on land and export it to customers such as China... more

Niepagenkemper, E. (2007, May). Zwischen Förderung von Stabilität, Menschenrechten und langfristigen Wirtschaftsinteressen: Wo steht die Zentralasienstrategie der EU? (BICC Focus series No. 5). Bonn: BICC.

In the first half of 2007, the Federal Republic of Germany not only has the presidency of the G8 but also of the European Council. One of the items on the agenda for the Presidency of the Council is to elaborate a strategy for Central Asia. Besides the improvement of the relations between the... more

Sommer, J. (2007, April). A way out of the impasse: Time for a new strategy on Iran’s nuclear program (BICC Focus series No. 4). Bonn: BICC.

While in February 2007 a promising agreement was reached for the North Korean nuclear program after the United States changed its negotiating strategy, there have been no signs of any such easing of tension as far as Iran is concerned. The UN Security Council has imposed sanctions because Iran has... more

Tannous, I. (2007, February). Schnittstellen von Entwicklung und Sicherheit der EU Strategien und Mechanismen für mehr Politikkohärenz (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

The short formula “Development needs security, security needs development” describes experiences made in the past few years. Just a few years ago, it would have been just as unthinkable to resort to the expertise and resources of development policy for originally military measures as to enroll... more

Ehrhart, H.-G. (2007, February). Sicherheit + Entwicklung = Frieden? Zur Rolle der Entwicklungspolitik in der zivilen ESVP (Paper). Bonn: BICC.

Most experts agree today, that peace and stability are an absolute necessity for development and that vice versa, development is an absolute necessity for the sustainability of peace and stability. This nexus between development and extended security is mirrored both in the overall concept... more

Brzoska, M. (2006, November). Analysis of and recommendations for covering security relevant expenditures within and outside of official development assistance (ODA) (Paper series No. 53). Bonn: BICC.

This short study aims to stake out the options for better capturing the implications of the growing conception that development, conflict, security and peace are interdependent for the OECD DAC’s reporting system, within and outside of ODA (Official Development Assistance). It discusses various... more

Böge, V. (2006, June). Water governance in Southern Africa — Cooperation and conflict prevention in transboundary river basins (Brief series No. 33). Bonn: BICC.

Nowadays water security is an essential component both of the national security of individual states and of international security, because all dimensions of an extended security concept (food security, economic security, environmental security, human security at large) are dependent on water... more

Wieschollek, S. (2006, April). Konversion: Ein totgeborenes Kind in Wünsdorf- Waldstadt? Probleme der Umnutzung des ehemaligen Hauptquartiers der Westgruppe der Truppen zur zivilen Kleinstadt (Paper series No. 49). Bonn: BICC.

The conversion of the town of Wünsdorf (approx. 40 km away from Berlin) is a great challenge and important task for all involved. According to the former Minister President of the Land Brandenburg, Wünsdorf was to become the best example of how a former military site can be transformed into a newly... more

Ladaa, M. (2006, February). Transboundary issues on the Caspian Sea: Opportunities for cooperation (Paper series No. 47). Bonn: BICC.

The aim of this work is to identify if the problems posed by the environmental degradation of the Caspian Sea could be such an issue. The results of cooperation on environmental issues would be twofold. First it would ensue direct action against the large-scale ecological degradation, protection... more

Wirkus, L. (2006, January). Water, development and cooperation — Comparative perspective: Euphrates-Tigris and Southern Africa (Paper series No. 46). Bonn: BICC.

From 1–2 March 2004, the Center for Development Research (ZEF) and the Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC) hosted an International Expert Workshop on “Water, Development and Cooperation – Comparative Perspective: Euphrates-Tigris and Southern Africa” in Bonn, Germany. Experts from the... more

Kreutz, J. (2005, December). Hard measures by a soft power? Sanctions policy of the European Union (Paper series No. 45). Bonn: BICC.

This paper aims at giving an overview of EU sanctions during the time period leading up to the first programmatic document on sanctions policy in June 2004. There are several reasons for why such an approach is valuable both for the research on European integration and for the international... more

Sommer, J. (2005, August). Security in Cyprus: Threat perceptions, possible compromises and the role of the EU (Paper series No. 44). Bonn: BICC.

In this paper, the reader will first find a short description of the history of the Cyprus conflict (Chapter II) and of the Annan Then, as security worries were one of the main reasons for Greek Cypriots to reject the Annan Plan, the security perceptions of Greek and Turkish Cypriots are analysed... more

Wulf, H. (2004). Internationalizing and privatizing war and peace. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

What does the internationalization of the armed forces mean for their democratic control, and how can the privatization of the state monopoly of force be prevented? This book addresses the internationalization and privatization of war and peace to find answers to these two questions. If present... more

Germann, W., & Karkoszka, A. (Eds.). (2004). Security sector reform in Central and Eastern Europe - Difficult paths towards success. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

This volume reports on the success and failures in the efforts of eleven Central and East European transformation countries in the reform of their respective security sectors over the past decade. The case studies analyse and assess whether and to what extent the norms, concepts, standards and... more

Brzoska, M. (Ed.). (2004). Conversion survey 2005 - Global disarmament, demilitarization and demobilization. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

More than two billion human beings throughout the world still live on less than US $2 per day, a situation the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of the United Nations were designed to redress. Despite progress in a number of areas, the Goals are unlikely to be met without major policy changes. A... more

Mogire, E. (2004, June). A preliminary exploration of the linkages between refugees and small arms (Paper series No. 35). Bonn: BICC.

The purpose of this study is to explore the complex relationship between refugees and arms diffusion. It examines the nature and extent of refugee involvement in small arms diffusion by analysing refugees’ demand for small arms and how their crossborder movements lead to the circulation of arms.... more

Brzoska, M. (Ed.). (2003). Conversion survey 2004 - Global disarmament, demilitarization and demobilization. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

Sweeping political and economic transformations worldwide have brought substantial reductions in armaments, armed forces and their associated costs. The authors describe a "decade of disarmament" after decades of an uninterrupted arms race.The decreased military employment of resources... more

Caparini, M. (Ed.). (2003). Media in security and governance - The role of the news media in security oversight and accountability. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

The concept of media as the ‘fourth estate’ is now firmly established as a main principle of modern Western democratic theory. Free and independent media are a key element in democracies, where they play a vital role as a bridge or transmission belt between society and those who govern. The... more

Myrttinen, H. (2003, May). Base Conversion in Central and Eastern Europe 1989-2003 (Paper series No. 30). Bonn: BICC.

While base conversion is, even in the best of circumstances, a long and complicated process, the municipalities and regions affected by the problem in CEE countries have had to face a number of additional difficulties. Especially in the first few years of the 1990s, base conversion had to be... more

Brzoska, M. (Ed.). (2002). Conversion survey 2003 - Global disarmament, demilitarization and demobilization. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

In the past year, political leaders and the general public alike have paid increasing attention to what are seen as ‘new threats’ as well as the responses to them. Authoritarian or failed states, terrorism, the spread of weapons of mass destruction, and the legitimization of preemptive wars all... more

Germann, W., & Edmunds, T. (Eds.). (2002). Towards security sector reform in post Cold War Europe. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

Security Sector Reform (SSR) is a broad and ambitious notion that concerns establishing and improving those security relationships and architectures most commonly associated with liberal democracy. Starting from the premise that there is no universally applicable model for SSR, this volume explores... more

Ioannides, I. (2002, August). The European rapid reaction force: Implications for democratic accountability (Paper series No. 24). Bonn: BICC.

This study aims to provide an overview of democratic accountability aspects of the European Rapid Reaction Force (ERRF), taking into account that the development of an operational European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP) and the further fine tuning of the ERRF are part of a dynamic process. In... more

Dimitrov, D. (2002, June). The restructuring and conversion of the Bulgarian defense industry during the transition period (Paper series No. 22). Bonn: BICC.

This paper will analyze the transformation processes in Bulgaria in order to determine which are the most influential factors leading to the sharp decline in the defense industry, and its costs—and benefits in the form of military conversion—to Bulgarian development. Secondly, it will analyze... more

Heinemann-Grüder, A. (2002, January). Small states - Big worries. Choice and purpose in the security policies of the Baltic States (Brief series No. 21). Bonn: BICC.

BICC brief 21 “Small States—Big Worries. Choice and Purpose in the Security Policies of the Baltic States” looks into factors that have determined the Baltic security policy since independence in 1991.The development of security concepts and the buildup of armies in the Baltic can be divided into... more

Brzoska, M. (Ed.). (2001). Conversion survey 2002 - Global disarmament, demilitarization and demobilization. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 may well be remembered as a turning point in recent history, marking the end of the post-Cold War era. As documented in detail in the Update, after a decade of cuts in military expenditures, reductions in arms production, job losses in the defense... more

Gonchar, K., & Roetger, T. (2001, September). Assisting conversion and company restructuring in Moldova. A Tacis-funded project (Brief series No. 19). Bonn: BICC.

BICC brief 19 “Assisting Conversion and Company Restructuring in Modova. A Tacis-funded Project” presents a case study of the TACIS (Technical Assistance for the Commonwealth of Independent States) project, which was carried out by a team of experts and headed by members of the Bonn International... more

Brzoska, M. (Ed.). (2000). Conversion survey 2001 - Global disarmament, demilitarization and demobilization. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

The current slowdown in disarmament and conversion, after a decade of reductions, makes it imperative to find new ways of revitalizing these processes. With global military expenditures on the rise again and classical arms control inadequate to the new situation, there is a great need to develop... more

Batchelor, P., Cock, J., & McKenzie, P. (2000, November). Conversion in South Africa in the 1990s: Defense downsizing and human development challenges (Brief series No. 18). Bonn: BICC.

BICC brief 18 “Conversion in South Africa in the 1990s” describes and analyses South Africa’s record on conversion in the last decade. The brief focuses primarily on the years since the advent of democracy in South Africa in April 1994 and examines the remaining challenges. more

Brzoska, M. (Ed.). (1999). Conversion survey 2000 - Global disarmament, demilitarization and demobilization. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

In 1999 the world risked losing sight of on-going disarmament efforts as wars such as Kosovo and Chechnya took the headlines. Nuclear arms negotiations stalled, 'old' conflicts continued, and the United States extended its role as the dominant military power, prompting a debate in Europe as to its... more

Brzoska, M. (Ed.). (1998). Conversion survey 1999 - Global disarmament, demilitarization and demobilization. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

With the 'disarmament decade' drawing to a close, perceptible changes in worldwide demilitarization are taking place. The initial post-Cold War enthusiasm for a 'peace dividend' is tempered somewhat by revelations of a recent deceleration in disarmament initiatives. While this trend is reflected in... more

Cremer, I., Küchle, H., & Sokol, S. (1998, December). Integrierte Arbeitsmarktprojekte auf Konversionsflächen: Auswertung ausgewählter Beispiele verschiedener Bundesländer (Brief series No. 13). Bonn: BICC.

In BICC brief 13 “Integrated job marked projects on conversion sites: Evaluation of select examples from various German federal states” ca. 90 base re-use projects in Germany were identified where job creation programs are in place. Most of the cases are located in the new federal states due to... more

Gonchar, K. (1998, April). Conversion within the context of economic reform: The case of Nizhniy Novgorod Oblast (Paper series No. 14). Bonn: BICC.

This report provides an analysis of the modern economic structure of Nizhniy Novgorod oblast and significant structural changes which took place after systemic reforms were launched with the special focus on defense industry and conversion. Niches for actual and potential growth have been... more

Brzoska, M. (Ed.). (1997). Conversion survey 1998 - Global disarmament, defense industry consolidation and conversion. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

With the conversion survey 1998, the Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC)presents its third yearbook. This year's edition lays emphasis on the worldwide process of adaptation of the defense industries-downsizing, concentration and conversion-to drastically reduced military expenditures... more

Bischak, G. (1997, June). US conversion after the Cold War, 1990-1997: Lessons for forging a new conversion policy (Brief series No. 9). Bonn: BICC.

Since 1990, the world’s largest defense industry has shrunk by one-third. BICC brief 9 “US Conversion after the Cold War, 1990–1997. Lessons for Forging a New Conversion Policy” describes the resulting changes for the US arms industry, defense-dependent communities, members of the armed forces and... more

Kiggundu, M. (1997, June). Retrenchment programs in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons for demobilization (Paper series No. 10). Bonn: BICC.

Retrenchment is a byproduct of public sector reform, which in turn is a direct response to some of the early implementation problems of structural adjustment programs (SAP). It has received much less attention than public sector reform (PSR) as donors, policy makers and researchers have tended to... more

Larsen, S. (1997, May). An overview of defense conversion in Ukraine (Paper series No. 9). Bonn: BICC.

It has become widely recognized that defense conversion is not merely a theory, but a practical policy instrument and process requiring planning and management. Accordingly, practical guidelines for implementing successful conversion policies are necessary, and this study seeks to support that aim... more

Brzoska, M. (Ed.). (1996). Conversion survey 1997 - Global disarmament and disposal of surplus weapons. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

n its second yearbook Conversion Survey 1997: Global Disarmament and Disposal of Surplus Weapons, BICC (Bonn International Center for Conversion) presents an up-to-date overview of the most recent trends in international disarmament and conversion. Disarmament is continuing worldwide, even if the... more

Wieczorek, P., & Zukrowska, K. (1996, October). Conversion in Poland: The defense industry and base redevelopment (Brief series No. 8). Bonn: BICC.

For the first time, BICC brief 8 “Conversion in Poland: The Defense Industry and Base Redevelopment” offers an analysis of experiences made both in industrial and regional conversion in Poland.The redevelopment process of former bases is markedly behind the restructuring of the arms industry. A... more

Ejigu, M., & Gedamu, T. (1996, May). Conversion in Africa: Past experience and future outlook (Paper series No. 4). Bonn: BICC.

This paper, written in early 1995, is meant to provide a broad overview of conversion issues in Africa. It reviews the literature and information on conversion in Africa. It attempts to draw conclusions that may form the basis for further research about trends in military expenditure and personnel,... more

Brzoska, M. (Ed.). (1995). Conversion survey 1996 - Global disarmament, demilitarization and demobilization. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

Sweeping political and economic transformations worldwide have brought substantial reductions in armaments, armed forces and their associated costs. The authors describe a "decade of disarmament" after decades of an uninterrupted arms race.The decreased military employment of resources... more

Klemmer, A. (1995, March). United Nations publications related to the subject of conversion: An annotated bibliography (Paper series No. 2). Bonn: BICC.

In the past, research in the area of military conversion was not a major focus of the departments in the UN Secretariat and the semi-autonomous and autonomous organizations of the United Nations system. Different perceptions of the concept of conversion by Member States blocked any initiative to... more

Brzoska, M., Kingma, K., & Wulf, H. (1995, February). Demilitarisation and conversion (Paper series No. 1). Bonn: BICC.

With the reductions of global military expenditure in recent years and the end of the East–West arms race, major opportunities for conversion exists. Conversion is often looked at as a narrow problem of retooling arms factories for civilian production. In fact, the reduction in military activity... more